UFO: unidentified or unidentifiable?

Unfortunately, for the "bulk" of false evidence of UFO sightings, many scientists do not want to see the real problem.

As for the mass culture, then it "flying saucers" or UFOs, firmly taken its place. Many household items, from trendy chandeliers and children's toys to modern buildings, they remind us of their disk-like shape. UFO equally comfortable feel on the pages of fiction (not just science fiction!), And on the canvases.

Popular culture has long been answered to the question of what is a UFO, putting an equal sign between them and the spaceship aliens. Special credit goes to the cinema, we need only recall such major American films as "Close Encounters of the Third Kind" and Steven Spielberg's "Independence Day" by Roland Emmerich. We're not going to jump to conclusions.

The term UFO (Unidentified Flying Objects) was born in the bowels of the military-technical intelligence the U.S. Air Force in the late 40's, primarily reflecting the specifics of this department, and so today it causes too many questions: Who unidentified why unidentified etc. However, the main question is quite different. Over half a century of active media coverage of this issue has accumulated tens of thousands of disparate reports of the observation of some objects in the atmosphere, and even on the surface of the Earth. What does the expert analysis of these reports? Let us turn to the history of official UFO study the example of the United States, France and the Soviet Union.

June 24, 1947 is traditionally considered the beginning of the era of "flying saucers". On this day, the American businessman Kenneth Arnold on board his aircraft saw several news "turned upside down saucer" objects flying in the background of Mount Rainier, Washington. This was the first case received wide publicity in the press. Subsequently it returned repeatedly experts, but even the famous American astronomer Donald Menzel, in his book "The flying saucers," where almost all UFO sightings are explained by natural causes, says: "What did Arnold — remains a mystery to this day."

The case of Arnold by no means unique. Many similar observations carried out military pilots and ground staff the Air Force. As a result, in September 1947 there was a secret letter to the Chief of Logistics Air Force Gen. Tuayninga, which, based on the study of the collected array of messages to the following conclusions:

this phenomenon is something real and not a figment of the imagination or fiction;

there are objects that are approximately disk-like shape and size, comparable to the size of the aircraft, made by human hands;

marked witnessed the behavioral characteristics of these objects — a very large vertical speed, maneuverability and the actions that should be considered as a deviation from the meeting when it is not a no-brainer for them discover their aircraft or radar fixes — lead to the conjecture that some of these objects may are controlled manually, automatically or remotely;

a similar description of these facilities is approximately as follows: the surface of a metal or reflect light well, round or elliptical shape, the lower part — flat top — a domed, flight is usually silent.

Following this letter in the structure of the U.S. Air Force has established a special unit to collect and analyze information on UFO sightings for 22 years (1947-1969). Over the years it has been studied about 13,000 messages, of which just over 700 were left, even after appropriate investigation, a mystery to experts. By the way, the list of unexplained observations led the case with Kenneth Arnold.

In 1966, this database has been submitted for examination to the civil authoritative commission established on the basis of experts at Colorado State University and funded by the U.S. Congress. After two-plus years of the commission, which was headed by the famous American physicist Edward Condon, released a thousand-page report on his work. Despite the fact that the report was made basic conclusion not appropriate to continue research of UFOs, it implies that civilian experts could not identify most of them presented reports of sightings of UFOs.

The findings of individual cases can be found even such passages: "This is the most mysterious and unusual case of simultaneous radar and visual sightings. Obviously rational, intelligent behavior makes UFO talk about a mechanical device of unknown origin as the most probable explanation for this observation. "

In France, official interest in UFOs was shown by the military in 1954, when the Department of Defense began collecting UFO reports. In 1974, speaking on national radio, Defense Minister Robert Galley said that the military has accumulated a large amount of unexplained UFO sightings, and urged scientists to study the phenomenon with the most unbiased position.

After three years at the National Center for Space Studies was formed "study group of unidentified aerospace phenomena" and the collection of information on UFO sightings had been placed on the National Gendarmerie, which every French gendarme among other required documents appeared specially designed questionnaire to interview eyewitnesses.

In 1992, summarizing the results of 15 years of work of the group and its leader, Jean-Jacques Velasco said that over the years, from the gendarmerie had received more than 2,000 profiles with reports of UFO sightings. About a third of the studied group of cases has remained unknown, despite a fairly complete and accurate description.

He also said: "Reports of eyewitnesses and direct research on the ground indicate the existence of a complex of rare and exceptional weather phenomena that are natural or artificial origin, which appear randomly. Some cases, despite careful analysis, can not be interpreted. Today, the problem is not that "exist or not exist," UFOs, but rather to accept some unidentified phenomena, rejecting a priori idea of their community, through the eyes of science. "

In our country for a number of years under the auspices of the Academy of Sciences has also worked as a special commission for the study of anomalous phenomena in the atmosphere, which was headed by the director IZMIRAN corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences Migulin. Here is what he wrote in 1979 in the French journal La recherche: "Statistical analysis of a separate sample of observations led to the conclusion that we are dealing with the real phenomenon.

Hallucinations and false information, even if they are, are so minor portion that substantially no influence on the statistical characteristics. Among all of this information are descriptions of well-known phenomena that simply were not identified eyewitnesses. However, most of the information relates to the observations of anomalous phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere, the phenomena that require in-depth scientific study. "

Thus, the following picture emerges.

The official position of science is that, since the vast majority of UFO reports can eventually be identified with any natural or man-made events, it is the small part of the observation that remains unexplained, it may be written off due to incomplete data and incompetence of eyewitnesses. In addition, the absence of any information other than the witness descriptions of what he saw, makes the study of UFOs is almost impossible.

However, the above material still makes listening to those researchers who believe that the emphasis should be placed precisely on the very small portion of the unidentified cases. After all, they have remained as such even after the examination carried out by highly qualified specialists, and not because of a lack of information about what they saw, and it was thanks to detailed descriptions, full of all sorts of details. In this case, the witnesses — quite competent, trustworthy people (for example, military pilots, police).

Of course, because of the inability to know in advance where the show itself a phenomenon due to the transience of the event and, as a rule, it completely, the main source of information become the eyewitness. But this situation UFOs have in common with meteorites and fireballs. Recall how difficult meteorites "fought their way" in the official science, infamous meeting of the French Academy of Sciences of two centuries ago, the members of which ruled that the stones fall from the sky impossible.

Today it is easy to imagine the condition of those people who personally witnessed the fall of meteorites, kept them in their hands, and when stated this, we were only faced grin pundits. Today, UFO witnesses often find themselves in a similar situation. Similar problems exist and researchers fireballs. Suffice it to say that a few years ago, many physicists do not recognize the very existence of this species of lightning.

As for the evidence, then they are mistaken who think their authors unreliable people (in terms of their social and professional status). So, we all respected Clyde Tombaugh, discoverer of Pluto in 1949, watched the sky struck him glowing rectangular object, about which he was not afraid to tell you.

Among the famous UFO observers may be mentioned former U.S. President Jimmy Carter and former Prime Minister of Grenada E. Gairy, at the urging of which in 1978 the UFO issue was discussed in the framework of the 33rd session of the UN General Assembly.

Certainly one of the most important factors repelling scientists from the problem is the odious nature of the halo created around the UFO mass culture and numerous amateur researchers that promote the invasion of aliens. Hence, in particular, and quite a common position among astronomers: speculate at conferences about the plurality of civilizations in the universe — it is scientifically and discuss the real possibility aliens visiting Earth — it is unscientific. However, not all think so.

For example, in the original 1990 book "Extraterrestrial Life" French astronomers Jean-Claude Ribes, director of the Astronomical Observatory of Lyon, vice president of the Astronomical Society of France, and Guy Monnet, chairman of the board of the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6-meter telescope (Hawaii Islands), do not just discuss the extraterrestrial origin of UFOs, but consider this hypothesis one of the most plausible.

Perhaps, like any other, extraterrestrial hypothesis has the right to exist, but being very exciting, it still does not explain much of the behavior of the phenomenon and leaves open many questions.

Touching the lamp-post, some Polynesian native, whose views on the production of goods are on the level of "digging stick", will tell his relatives about what he has seen them miracles of stone tree without leaves. Most likely the difference between the true nature of UFOs and extraterrestrial interpretation is much more than the difference between a tree from a lamppost.

Reasonable component of the UFO phenomenon, which is marked by many reliable witnesses, does not necessarily lead us to the idea of aliens. History has demonstrated many times how can radically change our ideas about the world. Pass a huge way from flat ground, resting on three pillars, to an expanding universe with no boundaries.

However, Friedman universe — is also a model, for sure, not the last. Does each generation will repeat the same mistakes in the absolute knowledge of his time? Do not assume that a thousand years to the theory of the Big Bang will be treated the same as we are today — to the epicyclic Ptolemy's model?

And the courage to ask, and what is the role of the mind and consciousness in the universe? Maybe the person not only is the end product of evolution, and vice versa — only the initial step of thinking matter, the path of which may be as long lasting and diverse as the development of living matter from the amoeba to man?

Today, these issues are the main destiny giants of science fiction (think "Solaris" by Stanislaw Lem and "Space Odyssey 2001" by Arthur C. Clarke), but they will inevitably be on the agenda of future science, and solving the mystery of the UFO phenomenon, for sure , will contribute to the formation of a new world of natural science.

As for today, it is probably the most accurate assessment of the situation are the words of American astronomer Allen Hynek, said at a meeting of the Special Political Committee of the United Nations in 1978: "There is a global phenomenon, the purpose and extent of which are unknown. This phenomenon is so unusual and alien to our earthly way of thinking, which often meets ridicule and sneers individuals unfamiliar with the facts. "

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