Need to see that the beginning of the use of tsimmeritom coincided with the emergence of new labor in the fields of German tanks — languid tank "Tiger" and a medium tank "Panther". Against these machines standard Russian infantry antitank weapons (anti-tank grenades and guns) were very inefficient. Well, a little old tanks — Pz-III and Pz-IV, get a screen armor, became virtually invulnerable to ordinary anti-tank weapons.
Interest in the development of modern Germans almost immediately came to the allies. British intelligence intensely engaged in collecting disk imaging Zimmer. British motivate good way to protect their tanks and armored vehicles from the Japanese magnetic mines. In this regard, the Germans applied in 1943 sheeting constituted excessive enthusiasm for the British. The coating zaschialo tanks from massive magnetic mines, which were installed in the housing tanks passing through the magnet, which is placed on a higher part of the mine. In turn task of anti-magnetic Zimmerit was quite of the ordinary — make the vertical surface of the nonmagnetic tanks. In 1944, the allies were able to get to your standards tsimmeritom captured German tanks. Abstract priemeneniya this composition they have received from the prisoners of war.
After analyzing the structure of the British led to what Zimmer composed of:
— 40% barium sulfate
— 25% polyvinyl acetate (adhesive base)
— 15% of ocher pigment (coloring dark yellow)
— 10% zinc sulfate
— 10% sawdust (filler)
Individually, none of these components do not possess non-magnetic properties. In September 1944 the introduction tsimmeritom was stopped. At the current time a specific answer to the question, which was the premise of non-implementation of this consistency does not exist. In one version of Zimmer's been very expensive to produce, well, under the German tanks in the terminating phase of the war none of grenades not rushed.
Maybe in 1943 the Wehrmacht predicted overall intake on arms infantry manual magnetic mines — more severe at that time anti-tank weapon in the hands of the infantry soldier. Purely theoretical level magnetic mine could destroy the enemy tank at least some, even hard, even in this case, if it failed to install on the front armor of a tank. With all this set mine was nesusvetno difficult. Often the correct database operations Magnet mines to feed either side armor of the tank was successfully interrupted by machine guns from other tanks or infantry accompanying the tank. To install the mines had to pick up a full-length, in military criteria, frankly, was mortally dangerous.
Correctly install a magnetic mine on a tank in combat obstanove was a very difficult and unsafe task. For example, during the Battle of Kursk defense Russian troops built with the calculation of the density of fire at 5-15 bullets on the front meter per minute — the density of fire advancing German units is unlikely to be a minimum. In addition to that, you should consider the fact that the current fire was conducted irregularly and impermanent. Periodically he concentrated more on unsafe sites intervals making up to 100 rounds per minute per meter front. Here it is necessary to emphasize the fact that the tank is, of course, was home to a fire. That's why stand in the battle near the tank, even on a small clearance time has been mortally dangerous. Throw in the same tank languid magnetic mine, and besides, this Makar, so it is true of the legs with magnets on the armor was virtually impossible. Most likely, mine have jumped from the armor coated with a special coating tsimmeritovym. When etomizgotovit mine with fuse instant offense was also unrealistic — a large mass of explosive substances would lead to destruction not had time to hide in the shelter fighter.
Cumulative acts of anti-tank grenades, detonators owning instant offense also existed, but they had insufficient armor penetration due to the light weight of the explosive grenades and the lack of stability in flight. In the end, the Allied infantry repelled the invention of the grenade launcher, which joined in a huge penetrating power of cumulative ammunition and the ability to throw it at a great distance.
In fact, the abolition of the use of tsimmeritom coincided with the saturation of the Anglo-American forces a new kind of weapon — rocket launchers such as "Bazooka". The troops of the USSR such a tool praktichesik not possess, without taking into account the small batch American M1-propelled grenades and captured German grenade launchers of various types. In addition, the Red Army defected to the active phase of the war, Russian forces seized the initiative at the front, all to achieve the highest mobility of troops. With all this carry languishing anti-tank grenades, also unsafe for the German tanks Molotov consistency, which were purely defensive type of weapon for infantry was almost unreal. All tezhest against enemy armor lay on plechti tankers, gunners and artillery.
One of the more affordable prchin rejection of tsimmeritom the fall of 1944 was the uselessness of this coating in the emerging boevoey environment, due to the lack of practical Allied antitank magnetic mines cumulative actions.
Create tsimmeritom produced in different places and in the forthcoming material, which had the consistency of a paste or putty myagenkoy, cast off at repair shops and tank factories. In its composition it contains legkoisparimy solvent, which owns the smell of acetone. Prior to the introduction of tsimmeritom did not need to add the solvent and with it quite simply could not manage even inexperienced workers.
Typically, a protective coating to the armor of tanks performed at the manufacturing plants, but in a number of the surviving sources, there are also photos, which show the tanks and bronmashiny with tsimeritovym porkytiem, which was applied in the field criteria. In addition you can find photos nanesneniya tsimmeritom neobchnyh in most places and in the most unexpected places, such ordinary infantry helmets.
Prior to application tsimmeritom on the armor was not required to expose the surface of some treatment. Despite this, armor usually first coated with a special anti-corrosion primer. Workers applied Zimmer with iron spatulas in 2 layers. The first layer has a thickness of 5 mm and a checkered appearance, which came out through the use of a side surface of the spatula. This layer was allowed to dry for 24 hours at ordinary room temperature in order to harden it. Plaid also notching vyponyalas, in order to make the best molesting the second layer. The thickness of the second layer tsimmeritom was the lowest for all that he was given an iron comb wavy outline in order to camouflage as to hamper the laying of mines. Corresponding to the "checkered" or "comb" sketch coating was used to reduce its area.
After Nansen on the armor of 2-layer surface was treated at pomoshi blowtorches, in order to remove the solvent, plasticizer. A similar "drying" of each tank was carried out for about 1 hour and was not accompanied by any difficulties that were associated with frailty tsimmeritom. Fundamental to this process was not to throw Myagenko spots, which could be in the next swell and keep up with armor. If the surface is not treated blow lamps Zimmer hardened for 8 days.
Tsimmeritom-magnetic characteristics were provided not only by the material itself, and the special texture nasneniya — parallel grooves having a depth of several centimeters in most cases, these grooves were applied in parallel horizontal surfaces, but occasionally met and vertical grooves (for example, on the "Panther") on the anti-self-propelled guns, "Yagdpantera" texture coating tsimmeritnogo nopominala by type of wafer surface. In rare cases, Zimmer used for application on horizontal surfaces of tanks.
Tsimmirit actually always applied to the tanks and assault guns (since the beginning of 1943 to the autumn of 1944). In field tests in rare cases could cause Zimmer and half-track armored Wehrmacht (known snikmi Sd.Kfz. 251 Ausf. D with tsimmeritom, which is likely to have been applied directly to the armor on the front). With all of this Zimmer fell off quite rapidly with the whole armor of the tank pieces. This occurred due to the vibrations experienced by combat vehicles while traveling cross-country, also hit by the armor shell fragments and bullets.
The following are the required number of non-magnetic coatings Zimmerit for process tanks and self-propelled guns of different types:
Panzer IV — 100 kg.
StuG III — 70kg.
Panther — 160kg.
Tiger I — 200kg.
Sources disk imaging: