Acne (acne)

The causes and types of acne.  Photo from

Acne (acne, acne) — a chronic inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands, resulting from their blockage and increased production of sebum.

The sebaceous glands are only in the skin of mammals to which we are with you and treat. These glands produce a special secret (sebum) — a mixture of fats that prevent overdrying of the skin, making it supple and protect the body against various bacteria and infections, as well as participate in a complex system of thermoregulation of the skin.

Sebaceous secretion may be increased by raising the level of male sex hormones (androgens) and fall under the influence of female sex (estrogen).

Acne is one of the most common skin diseases. In one form or another acne occur in60-80% Of young people aged 12 to 24 years. However, acne can appear and after 25 years, as a rule, against metabolic disorders.


Experts identify several basic types of acne, depending on the cause. First of all, it Endogenous (Arising because of internal causes) andexogenous (Arising because of external causes) acne.

The cause of acne can be endogenous various hormonal changes, including natural "hormonal surge" in adolescence and young adulthood. Play a role as well as genetically caused an inadequate reaction of the sebaceous glands in the rising levels of male sex hormones in the blood, which can occur in both men and women.

As adults, the most common cause of acne is an endogenous seborrhea. In addition, acne can occur in a variety of infections and chronic diseases. Often she clinical acne can prompt the presence of concomitant disease. For example, the location of acne in women around the mouth and chin often indicates ovarian pathology.

Exogenous acne develops:

  1. to the skin of various substances with comedogenic effect — property of causing clogging of the sebaceous glands and the coarsening of the skin (hyperkeratosis) in the mouths of the hair follicles. These include various oils and greases, the formulations containing tar. With these substances a person can contact, for example, in production.
  2. the immoderate use of cosmetics containing fats (fatty cream powder blush, eye shadow, etc.). In some foreign classifications Acne disease stands out even a special form of acne — acne mallorca. This clinical variant has been described in young people vacationing in Mallorca, who used suntan oil, the consequence of which was the appearance of acne.
  3. prolonged pressure and friction with clothing or the skin sheets, which causes a mechanical blockage holes follicles. An example is the continued pressure headgear, sporting helmet, plaster bandages, bed linen in immobilized patients, particularly those with excessive sweating. In these cases, in individuals predisposed to the disease, there may be mechanical acne.
  4. as a result of taking anabolic steroids by athletes and bodybuilders — the so-called bodybuilding acne

What's going on?

In the development of acne, there are four main mechanisms:

  • increased production of the sebaceous glands, sebaceous secretion;
  • hyperkeratosis — an excessive thickening of the upper (horny) layer of the skin;
  • activities of the microflora of the skin, ie, those bacteria that normally live on the skin of the person;
  • inflammation.

Because of increased production of sebum gland increases in size, leading to unsightly large pores on the face. In her mouth duct thickens the skin layer of horny scales, which are exfoliated faster than usual. Soon flakes clog streams and clog it. Finding no way out, sebum stretches the cavity of the sebaceous gland, where it gradually accumulates more and more. In clogged sebaceous glands begin to breed bacteria Propionobacterium acne. This bacterium — a representative of the normal microflora of the sebaceous glands, but when it multiplies too much, there is inflammation.

Clogged sebaceous gland, filled with sebum, called comedones. If the comedo has no access to the surface of the skin, the sebum is white and there are whiteheads. If comedo reaches the surface, the sebum partially oxidized melanin admixed thereto, whereby the head acquires comedone black coloring — having blackheads.

Acne can occur for many different reasons. That's why when it occurs is to consult a dermatologist — a doctor find out what led to the appearance of acne and prescribe appropriate treatment. If you find that acne is caused by hormonal disorders, you will also need to consult an endocrinologist. Go toosmetolog in turn,help get rid of the external manifestations of the disease.


Acne treatment is prescribed depending on the severity of the disease. There are three degrees of severity of acne:

  • Easy — in the presence of closed or open acne virtually no signs of inflammation. On the face there are fewer than 10 such elements;
  • Medium — 10 to 40 elements acne on the face;
  • Heavy — more than 40 items of acne on the face — usually inflamed, pus.

At mildacne preparations for external use (local) therapy: creams, gels, ointments, lotions and the like, containing different active substances that prevent the formation of comedones, or destroy them, reduce sebum and inflammation. By such means, in particular, include benzoyl peroxide (OXY5, OXY10), tretinoin (Airola Roche Retin-A) and azelaic acid (Skinoren).

At moderate and severe treatment is carried out as external agents, and oral treatment. In some cases, you need antibiotics (eg, tetracyclines). With hormonal disorders can be applied hormones.

To clear the skin of acne spend peeling — removal of surface layers of the skin with mild acids (chemical peel) or mechanical polishing (dermabrasion). Also to deal with acne apply cleansing, plucking a special facial massage, superficial cryotherapy, laser therapy, and even on some non-inflammatory acne.

Surgical procedures have a very limited use in Acne disease. Opening cystic cavities contraindicated because it leads to the formation of persistent scar. Sometimes strong festering acne lesions applied obkalyvanie special preparations.

Acne can be treated quite well. In most cases it is possible to achieve complete disappearance of inflammatory cells and prevent the formation of new acne for a period of one year to several years (and sometimes even forever).


For the prevention of acne requires regular skin care. People who are prone to this disease, do not use greasy creams, oils and ointments containing lanolin and petroleum jelly. Of cosmetics should choose the ones that are marked "non-comedogenic" (Non-comedogenic), that is, does not contain ingredients that contribute to the formation of acne.

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