The concept of a fundamentally new hypersonic machine was launched in the late 80s. Broude Freistadt working in St. Petersburg scientific-research facility hypersonic systems (NIPGS) holding company «Leninist». He proposed to protect the machine, flying at high speed from the heat, but rather let him inside to increase the energy source. Under the concept of «Ajax», a hypersonic aircraft (SFA) is an open bare aerothermodynamic system in which all steps of atmospheric flight portion of the kinetic energy flowing around the SFA hypersonic airflow assimilated onboard subsystems, increasing the overall resource unit and transformed into chemical energy and electronic. This solved the issue of global cooling of the airframe and many other problems.
«Ajax» — multipurpose hypersonic plane
Initially, «Ajax» was created as a response to the creation of the South American plans for a hypersonic spy Aurora, later he «converted in» hypersonic plane in global range, or the first step to bring the payload into orbit.
Hypersonic aircraft uses as fuel hydrocarbons (kerosene or more promising fuel — liquefied methane) and water. For heat recovery in double plating «Ajax» is a thermochemical reactor, which after acceleration and aerodynamic heating plating serves hydrocarbon fuel. It is used as a «endothermic» fuel — absorbs heat. Under the influence of temperature, pressure and with a catalyst mixture of fuel with water decomposes into an olefin and free hydrogen. This hydrogen-containing mixture enters the engine magnitoplazmohimichesky, representing a MHD generator, hypersonic ramjet and out of the combustion chamber MHD accelerator. MHD generator, inhibiting the flow to a good speed, acts as a compressor. Inhibited and previously ionized air stream enters the combustion chamber, fed with hydrogen-enriched fuel (kerosene or methane). Expiring combustion products enter the nozzle, further accelerated MHD accelerator, expands, and go outside. To accelerate the flow of air ionization and — creation of «cold plasma» — used electricity generated MHD generator. This improves the speed of the aircraft by 10-30% and still get a lot of advantages. Plasma funnel around vozduhopoglotitelya scramjet increases its effective diameter almost to weave meters, plasma clouds ahead spot-LA significantly reduced air resistance, and about the wings — are increasing their effective area and adjusts the lift. To ionize the air and the application may be a laser radiation or neutron source.
So makarom hovering in the atmosphere unit fails convert kinetic energy of the incoming air stream in a wide range of different types of energy use and energy complex onboard capacity of 100 MW for a variety of tasks planetary disposition. On the basis of the concept of «Ajax» in GNIPGS created family hypersonic aircraft «Neva» for low Earth orbit or to ship or transport passengers.
The revolutionary concept of «Ajax» has a great novelty factor, but as it follows the technical risk. Only by 1993 the expert commission of the largest scientists made the final verdict: «The concept of» Ajax «and its main directions not inconsistent with the data of modern science.» In the same year, a meeting of the Scientific and Technical Council of the State Committee.
NIPGS headed by CEO Alexander Leonidovich Kuranova intensively promoting the concept and finds sources of funding for its implementation. And in May 2001, the press service said holding that the JSC «Holding company» Leninist » (St. Petersburg) has signed an agreement with China on joint work on hypersonic aircraft (the concept of «Ajax»). The project is designed for 10-15 years. The volume of investments has not been determined, but is estimated to professionals for the development of such a project abroad spent about 70-80 million According to the press service of «Leninist», vouchers project sides plan to sign in September 2001 Agreement also provides for cooperation in the development of electronic equipment for different types of aircraft, satellite navigation systems.
First in the world maneuvering hypersonic missile Kh-90 «Koala» («AS-19 Koala»).
In February 2004, during a command post exercises exercises «Security 2004», in the presence of President Putin was successfully conducted the world’s first test maneuvering hypersonic missile. New Russian weapon, triggered by strategic bombers Tu-160 must overcome any missile defense system.
Our homeland, with a new superweapon, America wants to show their abilities. It is called the X-90 and is a response to Washington’s program from the Kremlin on missile defense. In the west, a project known as safe naming «AS-19 Koala». Under the designation X-90 hides According to Russian data, the first in the world controlled hypersonic cruise missile, and the appearance of tactical and technical data which are the secret military. According to reports, it should be taken to arms in 2010.
«Ajax» — multipurpose hypersonic plane
X-90 starts in using strategic bombers Tu-160M is the emblem of Russian military might. «M» — changed — in this case means that the wings of the car increased.
According to Putin, the X-90 is able to overcome all available also promising missile defense system with high accuracy and destroy targets, including those on other continents. Experimental standard «wonder weapon» was tested in February 2004, during a command post exercise «Security 2004», in the presence of President Putin with an intercontinental missile RS-18 (NATO designation SS-19 Stiletto) as a carrier, and in the near future will be armed with the strategic missile forces mission.
History of the X-90 began in 1971. Then the developers turned to the Soviet government with the project built small strategic cruise missiles, which could act on small elevations adapting to the terrain. This offer can not find then a response from management, but, after the United States in 1975 began developing a strategic cruise missiles (Cruise Missile), remembered about him. Developers missiles were ordered to begin development in the midst of 1976. Ended it was the middle of 1982. By 31 December 1983 the rocket was supposed to adopt. One of the main requirements was that in order to assure rocket supersonic speed.
In the late 70’s X-90 also achieved at 2.5-3M, and in the 80s already 3-4 M. guests MAKS-1997 in the pavilion could admire NGO «Rainbow» on an experimental hypersonic aircraft SFA.
SFA is the latest layout cruise missile. It must carry two warheads personal guidance that can help other without hitting targets at a distance of 100 km from the point of separation from the main rocket. As the media is meant bomber Tu-160M.
«Ajax» — hypersonic multipurpose samoletV while SFA X-90, filled a propulsive engine, had a length of about 12 meters. Segodnyaschy missile does not exceed 8-9 meters.
After separation from the aircraft carrier at an altitude of 7000-20000 meters dehiscence occurs triangular wing span of about 7 meters, and empennage. Then there is the inclusion of a solid rocket booster, which accelerates the missile to supersonic speed, then comes into effect sustainer engine, provides high-speed 4-5 M. Radius act is 3500 km.
According to the views of the Kremlin, no government in the world does not have hypersonic missiles. U.S. at the time abandoned their development on monetary judgments and limited subsonic. In Russia, the work was carried out as impermanent, but the pause was short-lived. Already in July 2001, the press reported on the start of the missile «Topol». Perceptible at all it was unusual for ballistics experts behavior warheads. Then it was not proved that its armed warhead engine, allowing it to maneuver in the atmosphere at hypersonic speeds. True sensation were already mentioned exercises in February 2004, for the first time carried out on the entire territory of Russia since 1982. During this exercise was carried out starting 2-ballistic missiles: one «Topol-M» and one RS-18. As it turned out, the RS-18 was armed with some of the experimental apparatus. He went out into space, and then again «dived» into the atmosphere. This maneuver seems to be in the prior art indescribable. At the time of entry warhead reentry its speed is 5000m / s (about 18,000 km / h). Because warhead must hold special protection against overload and overheating. The experimental apparatus had no less speed, but easily changed the direction of flight and does not break with all this. Miracles do not happen in aerodynamics. South American and Russian Buran shuttles, modern fighters have in common. Apparently, tested during exercise machine similar to the X-90. So far, it is a real appearance, as has been said, the municipal secret.
«This unit can overcome regional missile defense system», — said the representative of the General Staff Colonel-General Yuri Baluyevsky at a press conference after the exercise. Unlike existing ballistic warheads, this device is able to «at any moment to change the line of flight movements in accordance with the previously pledged applets, or already over enemy territory to be refocused on the other end.»
Instead of ordinary warheads that follows the line of constant movement and can theoretically be intercepted antimissile on RS-18 was a device capable to change the height and direction of flight, and thus overcome any Makar, including South American missile defense system. When asked how, in his view, the United States would react to this news, President Putin said: «The United States themselves intensively developing their own weapons.» The President recalled that Washington was not so long ago went out of the ABM contract stating that this step is not aimed against the Russian Federation. Modernization of existing and development of new weapons systems of the Russian Federation also targeted against the United States, President Putin assured, adding all this: «Together with other states Our homeland is responsible for the stability and security of the Eurasian continent at large.»
Strategic Rocket Forces of the Russian Federation destination contain:
3 missile army, 16 missile divisions. On their arms is 735 ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads, 3159. These include 150 R-36M UTTH and R-36M2 «Governor» silo-based missiles (NATO designation SS-both types 18 Satan), carrying 10 warheads any independently controlled, 130 mine UTTH UR-100N (SS-19 Stileto) with 780 warheads and 36 RT-23 UTTH «done» with 360 warheads, based on railway complexes, 360 single-warhead mobile complexes PT 2RM «Topol» (SS-25 «shekels») and 39 new single-warhead complexes PT 2RM2 » , Topol-M » (SS-27 «Topol-M2»).
Estimated Russian professionals, equipping even a small part of the arsenal of cruise missile warheads make Russian troops «for decades to come» for at least some immune defenses. Even the future missile defense George Bush reincarnated as «super-expensive and worthless toy.» Besides Russian spetsy reminded that hypersonic warhead — is not the only development in this direction. Also have programs from «Cold» and flying laboratory «Needle», which tested parts Russian aerospace plane (PARC). They can all be part of a plan of creation maneuvering warhead invulnerable to promising defense.
«Ajax» — hypersonic multipurpose samoletIdeya overcome missile defense systems in principle is not new. Back in the 60s in the USSR created the project «global launch.» Idea was, that with the help of booster output warhead into orbit, where it is transformed into an artificial Earth satellite. Then, on cue, cut one engine, brakes, and the warhead was directed to any target for its liquidation. While the United States established its defense based on the fact that Russian missiles will fly up on the shortest distance through the north pole. As a first-strike weapon is hard to imagine anything better, because the global missiles could storm the U.S. from the south, where the Yankees did not have radars that detect incoming missiles and take countermeasures. November 19, 1968, this Russian system was put into service in a small amount and put on combat duty. At the Baikonur Baykanur were located 18 R-36 missiles orb. (Orbital) silo-based. After signing the contract SALT 2 prohibiting orbital rocket system was dismantled. While the contract was never ratified by the USSR and the United States held its criterion. In 1982 began the dismantling and destruction of R-36 orb., Which ended in May 1984. Launch complexes were blown up.
Maybe now, on the new technological level, the system will survive the second birth. This means that South American missile defense, which the U.S. invested 10 billion dollars-ki loses its meaning. Because at the moment the U.S. begin positioning radar systems near Russian borders to detect and destroy missiles immediately after launch, before the separation of warheads.
And for this, According to experts, there are a number of countermeasures, partly developed within the Russian counter SDI applets. Thus, the sample may be difficult to intercept that missile in the active phase of the flight, making orbital maneuver. For example, the missile «Topol-M», according to its general designer Yu.Solomonova can make vertical and horizontal maneuvers. Besides line motion nevyhodyaschaya from the dense layers of the atmosphere, greatly complicates the interception. A critical situation in the Russian generals can return to the idea of global missile. And this is far from a complete list of countermeasures for avoiding intercept missiles at the active stage. When the warhead hypersonic X-90 will separate from the rocket — she actually is invulnerable.
This pride Russian Air Force — worth billion strategic bomber Tu-160. Thanks to a slim, stylish form it fondly referred to as «Snow-white swan.» But his other names more meet reality — «Blade with 12 blades» (due 12 cruise missiles on board), «Gun Nation», «deterrent». Yet it is called «Russian flying miracle» and that NATO stands Blackjack. First instance of the submarine was built in 1981. Originally commissioned had to get 100 of these cars, but because the Americans insisted on the inclusion of this class bombers contract START USSR limited 33 units.
After the collapse of the Russian Union of the Tu-160 were divided between the former Soviet republics. Currently, long-range bombers of the Russian Federation has 14 bombers that class. Initially, there were 15, but one of them crashed on the Volga in 2003. Every machine has its own name, for example «Ilya Muromets» or «Misha Gromov.» Last on this list — «Alexander Molodshyi» — entered service in 2000. They are all based in Engels on the Volga. For arming missiles X-90 airplane plane were increased. This modification is called Tu-160M.