Alien ruler — Peter III

Peter and Catherine: Condominium portrait of GK Groot

A lot of personalities in Russian history whose actions forced children (and in some cases even their contemporaries) surprised shrug and wonder — "brought to the people of this country at least some benefit? '.

Unfortunately, in the midst of such figures are also some people who by virtue of their origin got to the top of the Russian state power, making their actions confusion and disorder translational motion of the municipal machinery, and even frankly damaging of in the scale of development of the country. These people can be attributed Russian ruler Peter Fedorovich, or just Tsar Peter III.

Work of Peter III as ruler was inextricably linked with Prussia, which was the middle of the eighteenth century, a great European power, and plays an important role in a military conflict since then — the Seven Years' War.

Seven Years' War can be briefly described as a war against a very heightened after the partition of the Austrian heritage of Prussia. Our homeland has participated in the war as part of anti-Prussian coalition (consisting of France and Austria under the Versailles defensive alliance, and joined them in 1756, the Russian Federation).

In war, our homeland defend its geopolitical interests in the Baltic region and northern Europe, in the area where fixed her own greedy eyes of Prussia. After a short reign Peter III because of his excessive love of Prussia disastrous impact on Russian interests in the region, and how to know — as if there was the story of our country, if he stayed longer on the throne? After all, just for the delivery of products to actually win the war with the Prussians, Peter was preparing for newcomer campaign — against the Danes.

Peter F. III was the son of Peter I's daughter Anna and Holstein-Gottorp Baron Karl Friedrich (who was the son sister Swedish King Charles XII, and this created a recognizable phenomenon for the reigning houses 2-powers, as Peter was the heir to both Russian and Swedish throne).

Full name of Peter sounded like Karl Peter Ulrich. Followed a week later after his birth mother's death left an orphan Peter almost as chaotic and wild life of Carl Friedrich did not allow him to carry out education of offspring tribute manner. A after death of his father in 1739 he became a tutor of some Marshal O. Brummer, an old hardening formidable martinet, to subject every boy punished for the smallest infraction, and instilling in him the idea of the Swedish Lutheran humility and patriotism (which says that Peter was prepared at first all- the same to the Swedish throne). Peter grew up impressionable, nervous man who loved art and music, but most adore the army and all that was somehow connected with military affairs in all other areas zaniya he remained full of ignorant.

In 1742, the boy brought to Russia, where he took his aunt, the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna. He was baptized under the name of Peter Fedorovich, and Elizabeth picked up a nomination for the role of his wife, the daughter of Christian-August Anhalt-Zerbst and Johanna Elizabeth — Sophia Augusta Frederica (in Orthodoxy — Catherine A.).

Wedding of newlyweds came out August 21, 1745.

Cases with Catherine at Peter do not set out from the beginning: the infantile guy is inferior to mind his own wife, as before the military was interested in children's games and did not show any attention to the character Catherine. It is estimated that up to 1750's between spouses did not have any relationship, but after certain operations, Catherine gives birth to Peter in 1754, son of Paul. The birth of the offspring did not help to bring together other people's actually people, Peter arises winner Elizabeth Vorontsov.

Around that time, Peter Fedorovich discharged soldier regiment Holstein, and virtually all his free time he spends on the drill square, it is surrendering to the military drill.

During his stay in Russia Peter so practically never learned Russian, he is not loved Russia, did not try to find out its history, cultural traditions, and many Russian customs simply despised. The same disrespectful and it was his attitude to the Russian Church — on the testimony of his contemporaries, during church services, he behaved improperly failed to follow the Orthodox rituals and posts.

Empress Elizabeth deliberately did not allow Peter to address any political issues, leaving him only the position of Director Gentry case. For all this, Peter F., undeterred, criticized the actions of the Russian government, and after the start of the Seven Years' War, openly showed sympathy for Frederick II, King of Prussia. All this, of course, did not add any popularity, not how much-or small homage to him by the circles of the Russian nobility.

Foreign fascinating prologue of the reign of Peter Fedorovich was a case of "happened" with Field Marshal SF Apraksin. Entered in the Seven Years' War Our home pretty quickly snatched the initiative of the Prussians at Livonia direction, and the whole spring 1757 scour the army of Frederick II to the west. Massive pressure drove the Prussian army across the river Neman after the general struggle for the village of Gross-Egersdorf, Apraxin at one point turned back the Russian troops. After coming just a week Prussians quickly caught up the lost ground, and chased Russian heels right up to the Prussian border.

What did happen with Apraksin, this experienced captain and veteran warrior, for that obsession to find on it?

Explanation is acquired in those days Apraksin from the Chancellor Bestuzhev-Rumin news from the capital of Russian Empire of the sudden illness of Elizabeth. Reasonably judging that in the event of death, ascended the throne, Peter F. (past without reason from Frederick II) and for military action with the King of Prussia on his head is not exactly pat, Apraxin (most likely — by order of who has decided to play it safe, too Bestuzhev-Rumin ) retreats back to Russia.

At that time there were, Elizabeth moved away from the disease who had fallen out of favor with the chancellor sent to the village, and Field Marshal gave a tribunal, which lasted three years, and then ended with an unexpected death Apraksina of apoplexy.

Portrait of Peter III of artist A. Antropov, 1762

But later, Elizabeth still dies, and December 25, 1761 Peter F. takes the throne.

Almost from the first days after the reign of Peter III developed turbulence, as if proving the entire royal court and discover that he can rule better than his own aunt. In the words of the 1st of the contemporaries of Peter — "in the morning he was in his office to work where … hear the report, and later took the time to the Senate or the bar. In the Senate … for more fundamental things he took himself vigorously and aggressively. " As if in imitation of his own grandfather, reformer Peter I, he meant a series of transformations.

In general, for 186 days of the reign of Peter's own time to publish a huge number of laws and rescripts.

Among them, or how serious can be called a decree of secularization of church supplies and earth manifesto about the award "to the entire Russian nobility generous liberty and freedom" (by which the nobles were only a privileged
position). In addition, as Peter began to struggle with some Russian clergy, issued a decree of mandatory shaving of beards priests and prescribing them to form some clothes and is very akin to the shape of Lutheran pastors. In the army, Peter III planted everywhere Prussian order of military service.

To somehow raise inexorably falling popularity of the new ruler, his entourage insisted on holding a life of some liberal laws. So, for example, the signature of the king issued a decree to abolish Undercover investigation Affairs Office.

On the positive side, you can describe the economic policies of Peter Fedorovich. He made the Municipal Bank of the Russian Federation and issued a decree on the issue of bank notes (which came into force legitimate already under Catherine), Peter III was decided on freedom of foreign trade of, — all these initiatives fully, but were realized as early as the reign of Catherine the stateliness.

How exciting were the plans of Peter in the economic sector, so as sad things were in the foreign policy sphere.

Soon after the accession to the throne of Peter Fedorovich in St. Petersburg comes spokesman Frederick II Leopold Heinrich von Goltz, the main purpose of which was to negotiate a separate peace with Prussia. So called "St. Petersburg World" on April 24, 1762 was concluded with Frederick: Our homeland has returned all the conquered eastern lands in Prussia. In addition to this new allies agreed to provide military assistance to each other in the form of 12 thousand infantry and 4 thousand units of cavalry in the event of war. And this is the condition for Peter III was much more important, as he was preparing for war with Denmark.

As evidenced by contemporaries, murmuring to Peter, as a result of all these obscure foreign policy "achievements" was the "whole people." Instigator komplota became wife of Peter Fedorovich, things with which to soon worsened very much. Statement by Catherine declared itself June 28, 1762 by the Empress, was supported in the medium guards and a number of court nobles — Peter Fedorovich III had no choice but to sign a paper about his abdication from the throne.

July 6, temporarily located in Ropsha (before transfer to Shlissedburgskuyu fortress) Peter dies suddenly "fell from hemorrhoids and prezhestokih colic."

Thus ended the inglorious reign kutsee non-Russian in spirit and deeds of the ruler Peter III.

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