As is clear from the history, the first ICBM flew liquid propellant engines (LRE). «Oxygen» R-7 was fed with kerosene, then on the first plan we went light ICBM UR-100 and languid P-16 rocket engine, working for unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine — high boiling point (in other words effervescence at zero temperature) component of rocket fuel, known as «heptyl.»

Most mobile rocket launcher: ICBM «Topol-M» silo-based and mobile


Country: Our homeland
First start: 1994
START code: RS-12M
Number of stages: 3
Length (MS): 22.5 m
Launch weight: 46.5 t
Throw-weight: 1.2 tons
Range: 11,000 km
Type of MS: close coupled nuclear
Fuel Type: rigid

As to the oxidant is usually an heptylene nitrogen tetroxide. Heptyl missiles were deprived of a huge amount of oxygen defects missiles, and so far the main part of the nuclear arsenal Russia makes ICBMs LRE on high-boiling components. 1st South American ICBMs («Atlas» and «Titan») also exploited the liquid fuel, but still in the 1960s of the last century the United States became designers constructive cross on solid engines. The fact that high-boiling fuel — not flawless candidacy kerosene and oxygen. Heptyl four times more toxic than cyanide, in other words, every rocket launch is accompanied by emission into the atmosphere is very harmful substances. Sad will the tragedy tucked missiles, especially if it happens, let’s say, on a submarine. Liquid rocket in comparison with solid also are more complex criteria for operation, lower levels of readiness and safety, the smallest term fuel storage. More From Minutemen I missiles and Polaris A-1 (which is the beginning of 1960) defected to the Americans absolutely solid construction. And in this issue of our country had to run after him. First Russian ICBM solid elements has been developed in the royal OKB-1 (now RSC «Energia»), was to give the military theme and Jangel Chelomei that were considered apologists liquid propellant. RT-2 tests began in Kapustin Yar and Plesetsk in 1966, and in 1968 the missile entered service.

The most promising Russian: Yars RS-24


Country: Our homeland
First start: 2007
Number of stages: 3
Length (MS): 13 m
Start weight: unknown
Throw-weight: unknown
Range: 11000
Type of MS: HSR, 3-4 combat unit 150-300 Km
Fuel Type: rigid

Brand new rocket, the first launch which took place just three years back, in contrast to the «Topol-M» has a separating warhead. Return to that design was made possible after the RF output of HSR contract prohibiting the START-1. It is believed that the newcomer will change ICBM uniformly composed RVSN multiply modified UR-100 and R-36M and together with the «Topol-M» forms a new, refreshed kernel downsizing under START-III strategic nuclear forces of Russia.

Most languid: R-36M «Satan»


Country: USSR
First start: 1970
START code: RS-20
Number of stages: 2
Length (MS): 34.6 m
Starting weight: 211 t
Throw-weight: 7.3 tonnes
Range: 11 200-16 000 km
Type of MS: 1 x 25 Mm, Mm 1 x 8 or 8 x 1 Mt
Fuel Type: rigid

«Korolev working on TASS and Yangel — on us» — the island half a century back the missile involved in military theme. Meaning jokes simple — oxygen rocket Queen inapplicable recognized as ICBMs and sent to attack the space and military control instead of royal P-9 made a bet on the languid ICBM engines working for the high-boiling components of fuel. First Russian ICBM heaviest heptyl R-16 was developed in the CB «South» (Dnepropetrovsk «) running MK Yangelya. Inheritors of this line became the R-36 and R-36M then a few modifications. The latter received NATO designation SS-18 Satan («Satan»). In the current time on the Strategic Missile Forces of the Russian Federation are two versions of the missile — P-36M UTTH and R-36M2 «Governor.» Last created to defeat all kinds of purposes, modern means of defense protected in all criteria combat deployment, including the repeated exposure to nuclear positioning area. Also on the basis of P-36M of cosmic created commercial carrier «Dnepr».

Most ranged: Trident II D5 SLBMs


Country: United States
First start: 1987
Number of stages: 3
Length (MS): 13.41 m
Start weight: 58 tonnes
Throw-weight: 2.8 tons
Range: 11,300 km
Type of MS: 8h475 Rm or 14h100Kt
Fuel Type: rigid

Ballistic missile submarine based Trident II D5, has with its own predecessor (Trident D4) is not sufficient enough in common. This is one of the newest and most advanced technologically intercontinental ballistic missile class. Trident II D5 mounted on American Ohio class submarines and British Vanguard and to this day are the only type of nuclear ballistic missiles, sea-based, are in service with the United States. The design used extensively composite materials which considerably eased the rocket body. Highest accuracy, confirmed 134 tests can be considered as a tool that SLBM first strike. Moreover, there are plans to equip the missile non-nuclear warhead for the application of so-called prompt global strike (Prompt Global Strike). Within this framework, the U.S. government hopes to get the opportunity to strike a blow to the non-nuclear precision at least some part of the world within an hour. However, the introduction for similar purposes specifically ballistic missiles is questionable because of the risk of nuclear missile beginning of the conflict.

Show the first battle: V-2 («V-two»)


Country: Germany
First start: 1942
Number of stages: 1
Length (MS): 14 m
Start weight: 13 tons
Throw-weight: 1 ton
Range: 320 km
Fuel: 75% ethyl alcohol

Pioneering the creation of the Nazi engineer Wernher von Braun particularly needs no introduction — his «weapon of retaliation» (Vergeltungswaffe-2) is not clear, namely, that it turned out, fortunately for the Allies, the latter ineffective. From each issued in London «V-2» were killed on average less than 2 persons. German steel production but a good base for Russian and American space rocket programs. And the Soviet Union and the United States started their own way to the stars with that copied the «V-2».

First intercontinental submarine P-29


Country: USSR
First start: 1971
START code: RSM-40
Number of stages: 2
Length (MS): 13 m
Launch weight: 33.3 t
Throw-weight: 1,1 t
Range: 7800-9100 km
Type of MS: close coupled, Mt 0,8-1
Fuel: Liquid (heptyl)

The R-29, developed in KB them. Makeev, was located na18podvodnyh boats 667B project, its modification P-29D — 4 missile carriers 667BD. Create intercontinental range SLBM gave severe dignity of the Soviet Navy, because the opportunity to keep the subs even further from possible enemy shores.

Show the first underwater launch with: Polaris A-1


Country: United States
First start: 1960
steps: 2
Length (MS): 8.53 m
Launch weight: 12.7 t
Throw-weight: 0.5 t
Range: 2,200 km
Type of MS: classic, Rm 600
Fuel Type: rigid

First trial launch missiles from submarines decided yet military engineers and the Third Reich, but the real race began SLBMs together with cool war. Despite the fact that several of the USSR overtook the United States starting with the development of a ballistic missile submarine launch, our designers long pursued woes. As a result, they have overtaken Americans sraketoy polaris a-1. July 20, 1960 the missile was launched from aboard the submarine «George Washington» with a depth of 20 m Russian rival — missile R-21 MK design Yangelya — made a good start 40 days later.

Show the first in the world: P-7


Country: USSR
First start: 1957
Number of stages: 2
Length (MS): 31.4 m
Start weight: 88.44 m
Throw-weight: up to 5.4 tonnes
Range: 8,000 km
Type of MS: close coupled, nuclear, Detachable
Fuel: liquid (kerosene)

The famous royal «Seven» painfully born, but was honored by becoming the world’s first ICBM. However, very average. R-7 was launched only with open, in other words a very vulnerable position, and most importantly — because of the use of oxygen as an oxidant (it evaporates) — could not long be on duty Wet. In preparation for the launch took hours, that does not suit the military, as well as the lowest accuracy rate. But the R-7 has opened the way to the population of the earth into space, and «Soyuz-U» — the only one on this day for manned launch vehicle — there is not anything else, as a modification of «Seven.»

The most fundamental: MX (LGM-118A) Peacekeeper


Country: United States
First start: 1983
Number of stages: 3 (plus stage
breeding warheads)
Length (MS): 21.61 m
Start weight: 88.44 m
Throw-weight: 2.1 t
Range: 9600 km
Type of MS: 10 nuclear warheads on 300 Km
Fuel: hard (I-III stage), liquid (dilution step)

IDB languid «Peacemaker» (MX), made by South American designers to the mid-1980s, was the epitome of a huge amount of fascinating thoughts and emerging technologies, such as eg the introduction of composite materials. Compared with the Minuteman III (since) MX missile had significantly more extreme precision hit, increasing the possibility of defeat Russian launch silos. Increased attention has been given to the survivability of nuclear missiles in the criteria for impact, seriously studied the possibility of w / d mobile home, which forced the USSR to go to develop a similar complex of RT-23 UTTH.

The most rapid: Minuteman LGM-30G


Country: United States
First start: 1966
Number of stages: 3
Length (MS): 18.2 m
Launch weight: 35.4 t
Throw-weight: 1.5 tons
Range: 13,000 km
Type of MS: 3×300 Cr
Fuel Type: rigid

Light missile Minuteman III is the only day this type of land-based ICBM in service with the United States. Despite the fact that the creation of these missiles dropped three 10-ka years ago, is a tool to upgrade, including the introduction of technical achievements realized in the rocket MX. It is believed that the Minuteman III LGM-30G is the most or one of the fastest in the world and MDBs can accelerate to 24 100 km / h in the terminal phase of flight.

source http://www.popmech.ru/

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