Since 2003, the project changed its title to the Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle, abbreviated EFV (Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle Russo). Brand new amphibious EFV should go into service the U.S. Marine Corps in 2015. At the current time is expected to deploy EFV serial production and delivery vehicles in combat units, where they will have to displace standing armed LVTP7. Initially planned to purchase 1,013 EFV, but over time this number was reduced to 557 due to the appreciation of all the programs from the development.
The requirements for a promising newcomer armored personnel carrier was formed commanded the Marine Corps in 1989. These requirements have been established on the basis of preliminary tests of new samples and raring rational use of engine power and new technologies:
— armored fighting weight — about 32 tons
— Capacity — 21 people (out of their crew 3 people)
— the caliber of the main armament — 25-30 mm
— duration of action on land — 85%
— increase armor protection versus LVTP7A1 200%
— maneuverability on the water — 360 degrees
— speed, afloat — up to 46 km / h, the highest speed on land — 73 km / h, the average cross-country speed — 48 km / h
— in store travel by land — 480 km
— APC equipment and design should ensure maintenance of combat and defeat the purposes of the move as a day or so and NIGHT MODE
— APC should own maintainability and reliability, located at the modern MBT
— BTR had to have a system for the creation of suitable criterion of the crew and troops in a variety of weather criteria; communication system common to the Marine Corps and the Army, protection from mines, laying system, filter system and a system of active protection.
To achieve the desired task on the highest speed (40-50 km / h) on the surface of aqua required to solve two main tasks that have been associated with the hydrodynamics APC. In-1's, it was necessary to make such a displacement hull design that would make plausible movement mode measured by aqua planing surface and a three-point rampage with little likelihood of resistance to water. In-2, was required to make such an engine that would be able to minimize energy costs by creating traction, which would be sufficient for overcoming the resistance of air and water when driving with the highest rate.
In order to ensure battle car pretty frisky out on the planing mode and a higher ride comfort has been applied-independent hydropneumatic suspension with elastic elements tracked mover with caterpillar track and road wheels and a system of regulating the magnitude of ground clearance. In order to increment the gliding surface area, housing received a special board, bow and stern sinking shields. These shields in totality with the highest area of the bottom and tucked away in special niches housing tracks provide the required planing EFV surface, which allows you to move from a displacement motion mode to a mode of planing
Planing — a movement of the object on the water, in which the object is held in aqua surface only due to high water pressure, he almost glides over the surface of aqua.
Among the other more severe problems that had to be solved engineers in the design and development of a new armored vehicle, you can select the following:
1. Development of the tank's hull, which would provide the necessary protection against car-piercing bullets caliber to 14.5 mm. from a distance of 300 meters, also from large-caliber shell fragments 152-155 mm. at a distance of 15 meters. In solving the puzzles of the engineers realized that to fulfill its growth by the thickness of the reservation is unrealistic, since such an option would increase the mass of the body and the whole machine as a whole, making it difficult for deducing the APC planing mode and will allow to develop a higher speed on the water. Because the design of the protective cover extensively used light armor alloys (aluminum, titanium) and various composite materials (ceramics, special plastic). To make the car more protection it is equipped with a system of active protection.
2. APC equipment most effective and advanced avionics, which is able to provide comprehensive management, exploration and steady radio at great distances. Besides fighting machine is equipped with a special navigation system of NATO, and other means, and command and control systems.
3. Selecting the correct motor power which would provide a higher rate of movement both on land and in the aquatic surface. Company General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS), which won the tender for the creation of AAAV, elected as subcontractors local firm "Deytroit tipe Diesel Corporation" and the German company MTU. To set standards for on experienced previously was elected German 12-cylinder 27-liter diesel engine with a turbocharger. This engine is able to provide an APC 630 kW of power when driving on land and 1914 kW of power when moving through the water.
Recent data on the project EFV
Expeditionary Combat machine consists of a floating tracked armored vehicle with a body made largely of aluminum. Traditional hull shape with straight sides, developed lower front part and the rear wall, which has a small negative slope. The roof is flat body, closer to the front of the tower is installed with weaponry. Hatch for the landing is at the rear of the hull, hatches for the crew in the front. The bottom of the EFV performed profiled for planing. Besides duralumin body armor is an additional protection, made with the introduction of ceramics and composite materials. Likely consider installing overhead armor. Reservations protects the crew and landing of small caliber guns up to 14.5 mm, inclusive, and fragments 155-mm shells.
The front of the war machine takes pack compartment, which is located at fighting. On the left side there is a place of the driver, with the right-side landing force commander. In the central part of the crew compartment is placed with the main armament tower, there are gunner and commander of the EFV. In the middle of the hull place the power unit with installed diesel engine MTU 883, ventilation and cooling, as the main box. In the rear of the vehicle is the troop compartment, which holds an impressive volume of 9 cubic meters. The troop compartment holds 16 marines in full equipment or 2.5 tons of payload. For entry and exit of the car used single-winged rounded flap, located in the rear wall of the housing. When open, it forms a small ramp of the cargo and marines. Fuel tanks are located on the roof of the sh
ell in the middle part on the sides.
Diesel V-twin engine MTU 833 has a 12-cylinder, water-cooling and turbonnaduv. The working volume of the motor is 27 l .. Its special feature is that it can operate in two modes — sea (2700 hp) and ordinary (850 hp). In the marine mode, the engine runs only on machines and water jets cooling requests with seawater.
Box cars with manual torque converter and automatic transmission. Transfer case is capable of providing power transfer diesel engine immediately tracked and water-jet machines.
Chassis EFV has 7 rubber road wheels (on each side) leading the front rollers on each side by a 3 support rollers. Machine-independent suspension, hydropneumatic. Caterpillars duralumin, melkozvennye with rubber tread and rubber hinge. When traveling on the surface of the suspension takes aqua road wheels in the last upper position, the caterpillars with all this almost completely hidden in special niches, which lowers the resistance movement.
APC has two water jets located at the sides of the hull at the stern. Water supply comes from the bottom in the middle of the hull, the release of water through the nozzles located on the rear wall of the housing. These nozzles have flaps which overlap when rearranging reversible water nozzles on the sides of the housing. Changing course EFV is the partial or complete overlap of the 1st of the nozzles back up when you close the 2-hoo. When the car goes to the land, the nozzle to prevent overlap in their third-party items. The total thrust of 2 water-jet is about 10 tons.
When driving on the surface of aqua in the front and rear of the car leans on two shields, which facilitate the transition EFV in planing mode. The rear panel is in the up position on the roof of the car. Also, when driving on the surface of the aqua side surfaces are covered with caterpillars with 2 special board shields that when driving on dry land can be raised and to make additional security role for housing BTR.
The main armament expeditionary fighting vehicle is an automatic gun Bushmaster II 30 mm caliber, which is placed in a rotating turret at the front of the chassis. The gun consists of a 30 mm version of the widely used 25-mm guns Bushmaster, mounted on the BMP M2 Bradley. Meals tape gun, ammunition consists of 600 rounds (150 armor-piercing and high-explosive 450). With tool paired M240 machine gun 7.62 mm, its ammunition — 2400 rounds of ammunition. On both sides of the turret and hull are 32 smoke grenade. The gun is stabilized in both planes, the angle of elevation allows him to beat and low-flying air targets, such as helicopters.
EFV is installed on the active protection. Sensors complex associated with on-board computer, able to detect launches of enemy anti-tank and give the signal for the corresponding countermeasures, such as the inclusion of an infrared or laser jammer, which is coming can be combined with interceptor missiles intercepting enemy ATGM.