— Since you will read M. Kaganovich
The conversation was a sudden and small, but very excited me. Kaganovich in energetic form, characteristic of him, began to clarify questions about the project "Amounts" ("Sigma"), I suggested that if the car? After receiving a positive response, gave the order to arrive tomorrow for him to Moscow. "Voronezh boom" in Moscow came in about 8:00 am, and at about 9:00, sitting in a hotel, just in case, I was in Glavaviaprome. It turned out that a "Sigma" recalled due to a request Commissariat Comrade Molotov VM — To understand and report on the substance of the acquired zabugornyh disk imaging on any work connected with the unusual shape of the wing (Gluhareva work in the United States).
Query Glaucus TsAGI — to explain what it is — do not put anything useful. TsAGI scientists extraordinary assembly of aircraft were not interested. It took almost half a year and this issue became interested Stalin, who rightly believed that it may have something fundamental is going on in the area and a brand new aircraft, which it very seriously engaged. Following the request of the Secretariat of Stalin with an answer you can not pull it. Here Machkevich II, head of the department of experienced, I remember about "Sigma" shape of the wing which reminded him sketch sketches of wings, which were given in the request. About the aircraft "Sigma" reported the head of SAC, and I was summoned to Moscow.
In the head office I carefully told about the project aircraft. Expressed my belief in the real ability of the creation of a similar aircraft assembly, equipping them with rocket engine in the growth rate of their flight.
Initially Machkevich Osip Osipovich an experienced Head of department, and then MM Kaganovich listened to my explanation very closely. Then I laid out all my judgments, in a report. Having discussed during a narrow meeting at which the presence of TsAGI, the question of "Sigma" Kaganovich MM reported to Stalin. Following the report, Stalin ordered to prepare a special order in which I proposed as soon as possible to create a project analog aircraft "Sigma", to build it in the OKB-31 also carry flight tests. TSAGI instructed to carry out pilot studies I have developed a model airplane in a wind tunnel. Apart from this, TsAGI was commissioned and independent work on the development of a glider wing has a small aspect ratio. Project development and construction of the airframe charged Kamnemostskomu, designer TsAGI.
Commander in chief for any purpose were obtained just arrived in Leningrad two motors Renault 4 pi capacity of 140 liters. s. It was decided to use these engines for light aircraft pilot. In Glavaviaprome also decided to give the title of the aircraft, "Boom", as the shape of the aircraft resembled the shape of an arrowhead, and telegraph the address OKB-31 was such a cipher. Project development and construction of the aircraft was allocated to 2-a-half months, which was dictated by the long delay in response from the TsAGI and intrigued Stalin.
Here in Moscow, I developed a conceptual design of aircraft, "Boom." I have presented for this purpose in the TsAGI vacant doctor's office Cheremushkina also identified draftsmen and copyists. The work was done for a number of days. The assembly of species here agreed with Viktor Pavlovich Gorsky, a senior fellow at TsAGI, who was assigned to conduct experimental research "Arrows" in the wind tunnel. When assembling the aircraft retained the shape of an airplane wing "Amount", but at the ends of the wings instead of the usual goals of WMO was established.
My judgment on the aerodynamic assembly "Arrows", confirmed by experimental research work in the wind lab Voronezh Institute of the aircraft model "Sigma" have been agreed with the VP Gorsky, who see the situation in the base of the project idea was carried away by plane, "Boom." In the coming Gorski provided substantial assistance in the work, especially during the tests of the plane in the air.
Naturally, the conditions that were necessary for the construction of "Arrows", dramatically changed the situation in the aviation college. EDO work-related acute modal new job, it was necessary to isolate from other works.
After reporting on the meeting of the chief of the bureau of workers getting a new job, which met with great enthusiasm, we started to work. For completeness, it is worth noting that in the TsAGI work with a model of "Arrows" in their experience of time and the pace sought nothing less than what was allotted to work one hundred percent. Because he had agreed with the mountain, it was decided the construction of the aircraft and blowing model pursued in parallel: the decision CONTRIBUTE consultation Dr. Cochin. In the experimental section of Glaucus agreed to this, taking into account the judgment of Cochin and Gorsky's a fairly scientific validity of the decisions made by the assembly, size, plumage, the alignment of airplanes and the like.
Construction of an airplane without a preparatory purging model TsAGI in 1937 was not commonplace, but a short time claimed this decision.
After two and a half months of aircraft built, had the necessary statistical tests and calculations. Immediately Gorsky VP were completed aerodynamic blowdown model TsAGI.
Materials purging models have allowed to clarify the calculation of resistance, aerodynamic calculation, the position of the center of mass and dimension of feathers. The program of experimental research was far inadequate for modern requirements. Would not have been made to purge the lateral stability, there was no effect on polar land, there was rassredotachivaniya loads of feathers and wing, and so on.
A nice result of purging was that the aerodynamic calculation and purging match, the alignment does not have anywhere to move, and select the right tail plane remake is unnecessary. This was not the case, because the work on the "Amount" and "Boom" were harsh research investigations involving scientists from the Voronezh Municipal Institute.
It is worth noting that even at the time I ran concurrently physics and mathematics department of aerodynamics VSU, where there was a strong line-up of young scientists. They helped me to solve more complex problems in aerodynamics unusual aircraft.
Tests carried out on the strength of the aircraft developed in the bureau standards. Plane after weighing and determining the center of gravity even before the arrival of the state commission was sent to the airfield, the airfield is a replacement languid bombers placed 10 kilometers from Voronezh, near the highway towards Zadonskaya.
After my return from Moscow, where I was due to high-speed racing light aircraft, July 27, we started ground tests "Arrows". The tests were conducted as a test pilot AN Gusarov, who defected to work in the bureau at the end of 1936.
The machine is perfectly obeyed the pilot, the low rotation motor is smartly rulila just unfolding, with a raised tail perfectly withstand a "direct" and was rapidly gaining speed. According to the pilot after typing speed of 70-80 km / h the plane began to "ask in the air."
Factory commission, not including Gusarova me, consisted of the following personnel bureau: Polukarova LB, Zavyalova SA, Maretsky NA and debt. From Moscow, first arrived in August the state commission for flight tests. She explored the documentation set and decided to start the first tests, which included: weighing, determination of the alignment, tax
iing and podlety. Since there were no standards of safety for aircraft such as "Boom", Municipal Commission authorized Dr. VN Belyaev see the strength of the structure calculations, statistical tests of materials and give an opinion on the admission of the aircraft for flight tests of strength.
Belyaev, VN gave a positive conclusion. The calculations and results of research in the field of aerodynamics also did not cause vibrations. It was assumed that flight tests will recognized test pilot Kudrin Boris "on account" which tests were some unusual aircraft: beskhvostok, parabolas, swept-wing, variable-geometry wings, and the similar.
Kudrin, a long stroll around the "Arrows". Asked the price, read with Gusarov AN looked calculations purge thought and, ultimately, the commission stated emphatically that he is not only fly, but even podletyvat on such an unusual car, which, in his opinion, has neither tail nor wings is going. He also added that he agreed to go to Voronezh, he was waiting for the plane from the designer of all, but not only that.
Samples persuade Kudrin spend at least taxiing aircraft were unsuccessful (perhaps intractable Kudrin explained by the fact that it was close enough to Yakovlev and often had his car). Then read Kudrin factory pilot, he had the first sight on the "Arrow" appeared invincible disgust to the car. According to some features and the commission through its chairman chief TSAGI Procenko want to cast this thing, if it were not for constant calls from Moscow.
So as not to waste time, after the debate, the Commission has decided to instruct the pilot to land the factory tests Gusarov already rulivshemu to "Strela" and willingly agree to taxiing and podlety.
The newly started taxiing tests, as a run with a raised tail. The tests were successful, with the exception of the 1st sudden incident. During one of the taxiways pilot abruptly "gave up" and the car rulivshaya a relatively low speed, suddenly rolled over the wing, finding themselves on the back. The plane lay emphasis hood motor, console and wing keel. Thanks to the low speed and Myagenko grassy ground plane did not receive any damage and all ended fright. The plane turned over, put on the wheels, and the pilot started the engine overtook him to the parking lot where the car and its parts were re-examined. This incident on the commission made a strong memory.
The issue here is discussed and gathered to make of hromansilevoy metal pipe rim, incorporating it into the rim light pilot (no matter how strong keel, but just in case it is better to insure the same pilot's head). So it was manufactured. In the end, decided to start podlety. First podlet 7 August 1937 did the pilot Gusarov. In Voronezh, was not a bad sunny weather. Wind is actually absent. In the afternoon, around 10:30, the pilot otrulil the car to the edge of the airfield, and the commission within walking distance from the center. 1st Hussars podlet had to do nearby commission. After the ordinary formalities and obtaining from the chairman of the commission Procenko permission pilot Hussars AN "Gave" the gas and the car began rapidly gaining speed run. Picking up the tail of the aircraft, the pilot pulled the gap, since the commission was far away, and typing speed of 150 km / h (maybe more), pulled the handle. Dumbfounded at the sight of the commission, which was traveling from the plane at 15-20 meters, the car abruptly flew up into the air and at a height of 15 meters was nakrenyatsya rapidly to the left, until the plane were not to land vertically. All frozen in anticipation of disaster. It took a moment, which seemed like an eternity, and in a subsequent moment pilot eliminated and inclination plane substantially up to the end proparhav aerodrome (about 1200-1500 meters), sunk simply and smoothly to the strip in the normal position, in other words at point 3. The pilot, who completed the run, turned the plane and steer to the Commission, to wipe away the sweat cool. Coming out of the plane and removing the helmet, Hussars reported the commission chairman of the successful test. After that he became interested in the commission held view of approaching.
According to the memoirs of the Gusarova podlet was fine and did not cause him any trouble. Ah well, in the views of the pilot, came podlet: "The Commission has settled from the start of roll very far away, and the plane picked up speed faster than I expected, podlet had to hold on to this and the speed at separation was very large. Aircraft, increasing the angle of attack, dramatically looked up and actually scored a huge simultaneously than it should, height. After separation was the reaction of the screw and the car has received a significant slope. After that I threw the gas, corrected slope, pulled the handle and the car landed normally. " According to the views of all the pilot was normal. The plane comes off just perfectly obey the rudders that still necessary?
But for the majority of the committee members who attended podlet from the side and waited for the plane from various surprises, such podlet is usually not indicated. In the first moment of separation seemed that the car rolls over on his back. In fact, if the ailerons were not very effective, and very experienced pilot, he belatedly maturing response to tilt, flying would end in catastrophe. All this trying to explain Gusarov pilot Kudrin BN He eventually he said, "fly on this machine is like licking honey from the razor, if you like — to fly, but I do not advise it." Hussars at first could not in any way "grasp", why is everyone so worried? The Commission, having considered the podlet a more measured environment, decided to continue the tests "Arrows" in Moscow. To do this, found a lot of circumstances, much less that funky "backdating" Hussars, refused to fly. So as not to waste time, it was decided to bring the plane to Moscow for the five-tonne, the benefit of the aircraft was located just in it. So they did. Viewed on the map all the roads and bridges that were packed in the plane tarpaulin, prepared under the protection and flight engineer Alexander Buzunova "Boom" went to Moscow at the Research Institute of TsAGI, which was located at the Central Airport. "Transfer" of the plane to Moscow from Voronezh was not easy, it later reported Buzunov and accompanying. But the "Arrow" delivered quickly and safely.
In Moscow, after a report by Glaucus Commission, it was decided that flight tests "Arrows" will be carried out as research. They were instructed TsAGI. Clarified and expanded the composition of the commission. Tests have started from the very beginning to the implementation of the first 2-flight they were held at the Central Airport near the station Dynamo, which is now the heliport.
After re-examining the documentation again started taxiing. Despite the fact that the test pilot has not yet been named — was not interested — wanting to steer, it was very many. All test pilots tried to steer the STL — Rybushkin, fish, Chernavskii, basket and even NF Kozlov, head of LIS. During the tests, often attended by well-known test pilots of the Air Force pilots and plants, including Gromov, Alekseev, Stefanovsky, Chkalov and others. Some of them also tried to steer and to express their own opinion about the car. For example, after taxiing Gromov stated that "the plane asks in the air, but somehow did not have the heart to tear it off the ground, then he rolls over on his back?" Chkalov in these arguments inserted own statements. All pilots agreed on the fact that the plane taxis fine, confidently stand straight, and obviously begs the air, but wanting to tear the car off the ground was not. And since no one agreed to perform podlet, everyone started to persuade Gusarova again try to tear the
car very carefully, at least a little, so that was visible clearance between the ground and the wheels. Hussars after quite some resistance in the end agreed, because the tests are deadlocked.
Now podlet Gusarova really was executed very carefully. Those present for all this, especially the pilots, lay down and sank lower head, watched the flying up, trying not to miss the moment of separation. Later long argued — came off the machine or not, or is only thought. This led Gusarova execute the next podlet. Hussars broke down and tore the car almost a meter, proparhav certain distance. He even checked the effect of the ailerons. The issue cleared up — the aircraft from the ground comes off, flies, listen rudders and disgusting to him, nothing happens.
After experiencing Gusarova plane on approach began to experience other pilots — Fish, Rybushkin, Chernavskii. Then again was the question — who will be testing the plane? Conduct tests took a young but very capable pilot test TSAGI Rybko NS, which is suddenly very much interested in the aircraft. Rybko received aviation technical education (graduated from Capital Aviation College), because it was easier to understand the purges model calculations of the aircraft, and to link them with the flight characteristics of the aircraft, "Boom."
Following the approval of a test pilot "Arrows" Fish started periodic testing. Fish, starting with small podletov, brought them to the long podletov. The surviving aircraft from the ground after the separation, he flew up to 1 km and more than, evaluating and checking the behavior of the aircraft control surfaces act. In his conclusion, the car just off the ground, perfectly obey handlebars and landed perfectly. After spending, in his view, a sufficient number of such podletov, Fish August 27, 1937 said that he could make a flight. August 28 was a nice summer day, from Tushino little breeze was blowing. On this day, the commission decided to perform the first flight of the "boom." The machine is controlled Rybko NS
Rise decided to run in the direction of All Saints, Tushino, in other words in the direction of Moscow. There may be as necessary to find a place to make the landing. In the same direction of the Central Flying Club airfield was also no large buildings.
After the non-long runway the aircraft gained speed, and just came off almost immediately, jump, scored a height of about 15-20 meters. But then for some reason actually climb over. It took some time, and the plane headed for the edge of the airfield. Having flown 5-storey buildings and the highest pines, almost hitting them, the plane disappeared from view. It became clear that the car is not gaining altitude and the pilot is not going to vorachivatsya the airfield. Some time was quiet, all waiting for something. Later, suddenly began to act. Someone ran to the plane P-5 and tried to start the engine, someone got into the ambulance, somebody ran to the phone and started to call somewhere, and so on. Imagination renders the fears. But after a few minutes I received a telephone call from the airport Aero Club. Rybko reported the safe landing of aircraft, "Boom." Soon Commission gathered at Tushino airfield and listened to the story Rybko NS on the first flight, "Arrows". Here's what he told:
"After giving gas car rapidly gained the desired speed. Few tightening run, smoothly pulled the handle. Plane just came off promptly scored 20-meter height. At first I was worried about the slope, but straightened his reaction from screws began to set the angle of climb. But I found that on height is not reached. guess what to do next? increment angle of attack was creepy and not out of habit on such insignificant height, turn back too unsafe — it is unclear how the plane will behave. 'Cause I'm all the attention paid to overcoming obstacles and the achievement of the airfield in Tushino. Carefully turning the car pancake, I brought the aircraft to the Tushino airfield, where he performed the landing. Landing was also unusual, after the plane had been cleaned gas and vigorously began to fall just before the landing had to give gas to reduce the rate of repayment. After landing, I saw the open empty hangar and take advantage of the turning performance and small size plane taxied straight there. "
Fish, closing the hangar, sat down at the drums with sand and lit up. All this he did a very fast and fit, as people who were at the airport and did not have to "Strela" no work, rushed headlong to the hangar look that is still landed at the airport. Many beheld all landing fish, namely, who was at the airport recognized the extraordinary aircraft designer "parabola" Cheranovskii BI and test pilot Shelest II Here is what he wrote in his book "On the wing on wing":
"Rumors of a brand new aviation sweeps breathtakingly fast. On some previously unknown pilot suddenly start speaking with pride and affection. Since I first vyznat of Rybko Nikolai Stepanovich, when he at one point landed at the airfield of the Central Club, almost falling off out of the blue …
His office at the time was very bizarre. Perhaps only at the moment when the Tu-144 and the "Analog" he would not have caused surprise. Imagine a longish tailless, shaped very acute triangle. Something similar "monk" or the direction of the paper, which we launched in childhood.
Rybko vzleteliz of Moscow Central Airport. The car was neposlushlivoy, it is not lusted climb. The plane flew in the direction of Tushino, topping Silver Wood, Rybko forced to sit down in front of the benefit was an airfield. It is with great enthusiasm surrounded curiosity. We create different gliders and airplanes had much, but something similar — never!
The unusual design of the aircraft and the pilot summoned courage from eyewitnesses of this option homage to the fish ".
After the arrival of staff and the commission "Boom" was wrapped in a tarp, loaded into the machine and sent to the Central Airport.
Pilot message that there is no possibility of the car to climb very puzzled by the commission. Samples were taken immediately "on the move" to give a scientific explanation for this phenomenon. Expressed the view that plane shaped like a "Arrows", the aircraft can not be considered that he has a very significant impact by the proximity of land, which improves the aerodynamic properties of the machine. Off the ground and gain a little altitude aircraft helps airbag, and later, when the impact of land disappears, the plane, which has a shape not able to climb. Naturally, aerodynamics familiar with purges models were not involved in these speculations. Of aerodynamic calculations indicated that the car should possess quite a huge ceiling. But what's all the same thing? I, the death and Gorski began with the "addiction" to ask the pilot about the flight. As the flight was carried out as behaved machine and what do fish.
It turned out the subsequent: pilot after lift-off to estimate the angle of attack was no time, but that's gaining a height of about 20 meters and a slope of eliminating aircraft, which caused a major concern, the pilot found himself a regular attack angle of climb. The angle at the time determined by such a reference, as a projection of a conspicuous part of the skyline. The angle of climb is usually in the range from 7 to 9 degrees. Rybko about such angles and oriented. It is here that the climb is over. Started all together to look aerodynamic calculations and have seen that there should be specific so. At these angles of attack for the "Arrows" no excess capacity, and the best angle is actually twice as much. Everything fell into place. Scolded herself for being a pilot attention to this feature of the aircraft is sent.
Reported to the committee members tha
t pressure from various advisers priemuschestvenno excited by someone pilots were in complete confusion. All pilots sought to end the tests "Arrows" not to waste time in vain, do not risk the life of the pilots, and to report to the government that a similar machine assembly has no ability to fly away from the Earth, which he had just come off with an air cushion that the first flight Rybko nezapyatannoy a chance and fortune that he did not end in catastrophe, etc. and the similar. In the end, that the highest altitude to be reached by plane during the test, is 30 meters.
Askance at me began to look, some even hinted at sabotage. Accuse of wrecking while it was easy enough. TSAGI aerodynamics, while debates were held on the forthcoming fate of the aircraft "Boom", have engaged in the study of the flow of temper. Glued ribbons and started a huge blow propeller aircraft, photographing the behavior of the ribbons (photo blowing and report on the flight test aircraft is in the archives of the MAP and the TsAGI). For me, this period of testing was very weary. Created an atmosphere of hostility, as to the aircraft, and to its constructor.
Lead Engineer TSAGI Yezhov many years later was that someone always solved sample to test interference "Arrows". Test pilot Chernavskii AP, recalling the "arrows" in his own letter to the Voronezh Aircraft Technical Chkalov in 1976, wrote: "We just do not have time or, more precisely, failed to perceive the plane" Boom "psychologically. Psychologically We were not willing to work on this type of car! We can not be blamed for it, we just needed to wake up to! biplane with braces, stand fast, and suddenly luxurious triangle! "
Fortunately, the test pilot Rybko NS was not the only pilot. Knowledge, which he received in an aviation college, have allowed it without the help of others to experience the aerodynamics of the car. Huge effort to continue testing "Arrows" put not only me, Cochin and Gorsky, and small fish, which in almost all settled the matter further tests. When a test pilot figured out what was wrong, he ignited enthusiasm for the tests, and insisted on the need for their continuation. Reasons and persuasions detractors had no effect on him. The crucial inquiry was "on top" of the status of work with "Boom". The Commission has decided to repeat the flight.
Rybko before the new flight claimed to install the device in the cockpit, which will help him find the angle of climb. In workshops LII made applicable here, though simple device. It was established in the cockpit. Before the flight Rybko long was sitting in the cockpit, mastered the new situation landmarks, raised and lowered tail and, in the end, said he was willing to re-experience the car in the air.
The yard was of early autumn — September 1937 Weather testing was good, as the saying goes, "Indian Summer". Flew over the runway network and outside the band was marching listeners VIVA Zhukovsky. All they beheld flight "Arrows", the perfect test pilot Rybko NS Colonel retired engineer N. Semenov, past students of the Academy, well remembers the flight and the moment when the audience broke system, stop to watch the flight of this extraordinary aircraft. Direction was the same as in the first flight.
The aircraft was re-examined, the pilot tried out the motor, signed by flight manifest. In the end, the test pilot asked to remove the pads from the wheels and started the run after a wave of the flag. After a few seconds, the machine came off and the fish after a small holding evenly began to increase the angle of attack. The plane did not habitually his nose obediently climbed skyward. After 1200-1300 m of climb, the pilot began to turn. Gently at first, and then more vigorously. Rybko began to experience "Arrow". He did slides, bends and everything else that is necessary during the first flight, and took the time to sit down. Then the pilot of "threw" the management and plane confidence continued to fly in a straight line, rocking around its longitudinal axis by 5-7 degrees. Swinging through the solar glare was perfectly clear. On landing the car was a sufficiently high rate. Having a good speed in store, the pilot just landed on 3 points. Thus ended the second mission "Arrows" and the first flight of the ordinary, which proved entirely successful. Subsequent flight tests "Arrows", after several flights were conducted on Pereiaslavl lake in the winter, and then again in Moscow.
The Commission TsAGI test results established the possibility of successful flights of the aircraft so unusual for long circuit at subsonic speeds also identified features of his piloting.
It was the world's first tests of the aircraft has a delta wing of low aspect ratio (A = 0.975). Now the matter was left to the achievement of supersonic flight speeds.
The only remark Commission were small transverse vibrations of the machine in an abandoned administration, which for some reason were considered to be characteristic of the scheme.
My lack of a commission is not allowed to direct its attention to the fact that the oscillations of the aircraft are well known and referred to as "Dutch step." Their elimination is not a particular problem.
Airplane "Boom" in August 1938 was returned to the bureau. On the plane arrived detailed report, the findings and the conclusion of the scheme.
Under the terms of modal car packed at our request in a box, has been focused on plant number 18 by rail. Lack of aircraft detected Commission — the transverse vibrations — we have decided to remove. Now we know that the aircraft with swept wings are so great lateral stability you need to make huge WMO and negative cross "V" of the wings. For this option there has been a partial shading of the WMO. Wasting no time, were carried out follow-up activities:
— WMO increment of 30%;
— plate is the type of "Amount".
The pilot Rybko NS soon came to the factory for additional testing "Arrows" on the airfield factory number 18 in the city of Voronezh. Torrential rains do not have allowed it. Later check flights on the "arrow" and had a great Hussars AN
As a result, flight data found that as the WMO fluctuations were one hundred percent and eliminated when installing washers manifested nekordinalno. Also resulted in exposure to fluctuations in flight mode. In both cases, the vibrations were absent at tremendous speeds. According to the latest factory in Voronezh test pilot AN Hussars, after installing the screw Rathje headed for the speed at 343 km / h. This rate received on dimensional kilometer factory number 18.
Airplane "Boom"Quite fulfilled his puzzle, after all the tests, making the act also write an application to the report TSAGI according to instructions from Moscow in 1938 was destroyed. But the story of" Arrows "is not over. Its sequel, you will learn more. You learn that the outbreak of war in 1941, under the control of the designer Bartinini RL drafted a supersonic fighter "P" type "Flying Wing" low aspect ratio, which has a huge variable sweep the front edge with a vertical two-keel fins on the wing tips.
On the fighter Bartinini project has been the impact of aircraft "Sigma" and successful tests of its counterpart — the aircraft "Boom."
In drafting Bartinini RL participated VN Belyaev, past member of the State Commission for Testing "Arrows" in 1937 Project "P" designed Bartinini remained on paper. Not implemented, and P-114 (plane, which had swept wing) Bartinini developed in 1943. R-114 — a good jet interceptor liquid rocket engine design Glushko. But was BI-1 EDO Bolkhovitinov VF obviously not suitable for the huge speeds on its own assembly (in connection with the test pilot died
In 1944, at the end of the Second World War the Germans, creating a jet aircraft, also will attempt to use the scheme "Arrows" for their own supersonic fighter Jaeger P-13. "Aeroplane Spotter" 8/11-1947, the "EI" № 376 reported:
"In Darmstadt in November 1944, a group of German students, led by a medical Lippisch, began work on the design of jet aircraft, which is designed for supersonic speed. At the time of the occupation of Germany built a glider DM-1. Here in the camp, such as it may seem weird someone will try to kill all the information about "Arrow" and its successful trial in 1937, not even to the Russian zamalivaniem priority in the discovery of the most promising wing assembly for orbital and supersonic aircraft in 1934
In 1957, only zabugornyh magazines could be the first time to find out about the "Amount" and "Boom." We have the same first memoir on the "arrow" appeared in the book "Tested in the sky" Gaul ML, but they distort the idea of the plane, making it the assembly in the "pancake on malehankih slender legs," that the cause of the country's success zaniya development of aircraft does not serve. Compare the description of the "Arrows" Gall, ML with the impression of the car test pilot AA ChernavskiT — "Deluxe quick triangle" also similar — in a book test pilot Shelest II — "… A similar direction, acute triangle."
As a result of successful tests of the aircraft "Arrow" I was asked to create and to do battle with the plane-rotor assembly on the basis of "Arrows", referring to the highest speed data machine. But even during the design of the aircraft "Sigma" it was clear that such schemes with EMG for subsonic aircraft to common schemes have advantages in the scheduling of performance properties. Informing their judgments, I refused to create a military plane with-rotor before the jet engines needed to fly at supersonic speeds.
That still left with the task issued by TsAGI in 1937? To uttered the above should be added that the task issued Glavaviapromu TsAGI research wing of small aspect ratio, and the creation of a glider Kamenomostskaya, designer TsAGI was not fulfilled. TSAGI limited test aircraft, "Boom" Gorsky VP In essence, these tests only test the model specified "Arrows" conducted AV Stolyarov in aerodynamic laboratory, Voronezh Institute.
To learn how to "Boom" was flying in the sky of Moscow and Voronezh, Fish, NS said the newspaper "Young kommunar" (Voronezh, November 3, 1976).
"For more than 25 years, scientists have calculated, designed and made the shape of the wing, which has been called" gothic ", although the form was" born "in Russian of, the place of its registration — Voronezh, and year of birth — 1933rd. Godfather was twenty-nine-Voronezh aircraft Moskaliev Alexander.
For the sake of historical justice in this form should be called the naming of its creator … I am confident that justice will eventually prevail and value Moskalyova of Alexander, the value of Voronezh, and in the end, the value of our country will be recognized. I would be glad if the case posodeystvuet my testimony, witness test pilot aircraft, "Arrows".
At the Metropolitan Central Airport in a hangar OELID TSAGI first in September 1937 appeared quite weird airplane "Arrow" design Moskalyova AS Single, small size machine, which resembles a triangle in the plane, with 140-horsepower 4-cylinder engine Renault Bengali. The pilot was placed in the fuselage, which is locked up in front of the plastic fairing and the root reason behind the keel. Kiel passed into the rudder. Elevators once served as the ailerons, what is now called "elevons."
Unusual forms of aircraft caused a huge number of critical remarks concerning its flying characteristics.
Young designer Alexander Moskaliev and leading aerodynamics TSAGI Gorski VP These observations close to the heart, and did not take insists on early flights. They also joined Chesalov AV engineer, chief of the laboratory OELID. The case was only the flight. Decided to start to see how the plane picks up speed on the run and how easy it will be a "boom" soar.
Several pilots trying to break even … and no of success. The main feature of the "Arrows" was that at the end of the run had to be sure to run across the huge angle of attack that aircraft since quite special. The pilots began to fluctuate in the ability of separation and reaching is. Then the pilot plant Hussars AN, at the urging of Moskalyova AS, made a few small podletov. It was my turn to experience the plane, "Boom." My first two runs were the same as those of other pilots. During the third run, has already passed half of the airfield, translate to huge car angles of attack and — oh, the magic! "Boom"Defected to the climb.'ll Try again, and I get a tight confidence that the flight is likely.
Observations from the side and my explanation of temper led to the run that allowed the flight. Fortunately for me was the start of the airport from the plant number 39. The run was held in the normal mode. When they began to approach civilian aircraft, I began to increase the angle of attack and the car took off quickly, almost immediately gaining a height of about 20-23 meters. So Makar, the take-off technique I guessed right. But the "boom" has to climb.
I imagined that the surplus capacity of the motor is small, because to do a U-turn and vorachivatsya the airfield I was afraid.
I fly on the Tushino airfield. I was confused one phenomenon in the behavior of the aircraft he constantly swayed from wing to wing. The frequency and amplitude of oscillation were small. In the end, I finished them fend off. I even tried to change the boundaries of 40 km / h speed range, but it gave great results. In my possession was not so pressed for time and do not, do not tempt fate, I made a landing at the airfield in Tushino. During landing the engine worked on medium mode.
All steering wheels on the landing worked fine, and the transverse vibrations were not shown. Range of the first flight was about 20 km.
So Makarov, it was confirmed that the "boom" can fly.
My message is that the aircraft lacks the ability to climb, caused different ideas. A huge number of people believed that the aircraft shaped like a "Arrows" is heavily influenced by the land that the distance from the earth the machine is not able to gain height. I looked purge the plane and calculations and saw that the plane will climb, but with a tremendous angles of attack. After long disputes have allowed me to make the next flight.
Second flight, the perfect fall of 1937, has been completely successful. After earning 1.5 million meters, I checked the "Arrow" on the stability and maneuverability. Everything was fine. The exception is the transverse vibrations.
Discuss in OELID flight results, it was decided to continue the tests. I suggested Plescheevo lake. On the shore of the lake in the 150-170 km from the town of Moscow placed Pereiaslavl-Zaleski. Plescheevo is an ellipse with axes equal to about 5 kilometers. "Arrow" was transported there in a day. The next day the chief flight of Kozlov IF and I arrived at the PO-2. Lake Plescheevo for "Arrows" was a lovely airfield. Here I have done 5 flights, confidently climbed 1.5 thousand meters. The exception were, of course, transverse vibrations in flight the aircraft had no features. In short car behaved because I should behave plane, which has a similar power-and the load on the square. m Landings were made only with the engine running. Overview of the aircraft on the ground seemed missing, but in the air — completely satisfactory.
Flights to Lake Pleshcheyevo flyi
ng characteristics have allowed for "Arrows".
After the plane returned to OELID, decided to carry out the flight on wheels to search premises of transverse vibrations. Chesalov AV offered to suspend the "Arrow" placed at the center of mass of the aircraft and blow the hinges of the car in such a condition the screw thread, which installed on the engine, the M-34. During the experiment, I was sitting in the cockpit, tried to catch the possible variations. Alternatively, the flow rate was low or friction in the suspension is very large, but it turned out impossible to catch anything.
At first the Central Airport in May 1938 I was made the last flight. He did not bring anything new, except that the 1.5 sq m have been achieved very quickly, and perhaps you could get a bigger ceiling plane. According to the "Arrows" without skis, only with wheels, flight data was much better than with the skis, but the aircraft performance properties are not recorded. To eliminate the transverse vibrations Moskaliev AS proposed to establish two more on the sides of the keel plane. "Arrow" for this purpose were taken to the city of Voronezh.
At the end of July 1938 Chesalov AV, Gorsky VP I arrived there. But in Voronezh airfield was too evil in such a state that it was impossible to make flights "Arrows". At this my flights on this unique machine, which at completion could be reincarnated as a promising combat aircraft ended.
For the design of many modern fighters borrow assembly "Arrows", which was made 40 years ago.
Aircraft performance characteristics:
Modification — SAM-9;
Wingspan — 3.55 m;
Length — 6.15 m;
Wing area — 13,00 m2
Empty weight — 470 kg;
The biggest take-off weight — 630 kg;
Motor type — piston engine CF-4;
Power — 140 hp;
The highest speed — 310 km / h;
Service ceiling — 1500 m
Crew — 1 person.
The list of sources:
Moskalev AS Blue spiral
Wings of Motherland. Ivnamin Sultanov. The competition has faded into oblivion
Shavrov VB History of aircraft construction in the USSR 1938-1950 years.
Encyclopedia catalog. Planes land of the Soviets