The main objective of aircraft GDP steel anti-submarine warships guarding the output of base sites, and during the campaign — search, tracking and settlement of enemy submarines, communications between ships and the shore connection, delivery personnel and emergency supplies, landing Marines. In addition, the aircraft made ice reconnaissance, air support amphibious operations, service expedition ships also search for game fish.
As can be seen from the list of tasks, range and speed of flight, together with vertical takeoff / landing, those were major. requirements for the aircraft. Helicopters, which at the time were armed naval aviation, had good take-off and landing characteristics, but inferior to aircraft with a GDP of range and speed.
The effectiveness of search and intelligence operations, combat and rescue missions, transport flights in the open sea, the higher at tremendous speeds and distances from the ship, they can be made. Ship plane with a GDP there is considerable merit to the helicopter.
Seaplane ship-based, not bad except aircraft performance features as the aircraft, which is operated on the high seas, must have certain properties seaworthy. In other words, to take off and land on water as needed to stay afloat and drifting on the mooring or anchorage.
The relatively small sea plane with a GDP of severe weather criteria can make takeoffs and landings at sea about 3 points, and even a bit higher. Together with the need to take into account the fact that the mode of vertical takeoff / landing is more intense, and therefore the takeoff/landing an aircraft before the same vertical modes have significant advantages.
Aircraft take-off / landing are increasing capacity, and as a consequence, the duration and range, economize scarce resources hoisting engines.
The conditions of implementation of these aircraft can turn away from the GDP in all cases extravehicular operations on the high seas, when weather conditions allow an aircraft to soar with water. This requirement applies to the coast of aircraft with vertical takeoff and landing, where there are ordinary airfields.
According to the ability, the ship's aircraft with GDP should be a good amphibious seaplane, LTH is compliant with current requirements.
Engineers I. Berlin and Pavel V., who worked in the design office Bartinini Marine theme, in 1969, developed the concept of order in the active naval aircraft GDP. The aircraft was designated CDF-70.
On the arms of Naval Aviation at the same time adopted plane with vertical takeoff and landing Yak-38. Pavel says:
"We were aware of the position of many of the aircraft fleet, including Alexander N. Tomaszewski, deputy commander of the air force of the Navy. Yes, the "Yak" may be needed as a strike aircraft at short distances with little combat stress. But vertical takeoff was a prerequisite for big waste of fuel and, as a consequence, the short-range actions, small payload. In general, for the Navy was not a great find, and even more so was not a panacea for all ills.
We have also decided to offer such a concept. About 80 percent of the time in season sea state enables the aircraft to take off from the water, as a seaplane without wasting to raise unlimited amounts of kerosene, not pererazmerivaya engines to power a couple of times. In this regard, we have planned an airplane that, when necessary, can take off vertically from the deck, but in the rest of the time (80 percent of the time in season), can be launched on the crane and soar ordinary way. "
The proposed scheme made it possible to more confidently build the retractable floats, marching and lifting engines, while maintaining the required amount for equipment, fuel and crew, and the dimensions of the cargo compartment.
One of the features of the project was that the hoisting engines were to be made block, with the possibility of dismantling frisky in the ship-based criteria.
In the late 1960s aircraft with vertical takeoff and landing were actually at the stage of creation of the experimental samples. Their field of implementation is not yet determined.
While checking sought the approval of the so-called "Bezaerodromnosti" aircraft with vertical takeoff / landing and their ability to compete with aircraft that do not require expensive and vulnerable concrete lanes and taking off from the ground. Also, was not resolved the dispute about whether the plane with GDP soar and land vertically only, or also to run and run.
These questions and suggestions Berlin Korchagina provide specific answers:
— area efficient implementation of aircraft with vertical takeoff and landing is the only naval aviation;
— ship's deck is the best take-off and landing platform, ship-based and created the right conditions for "bezaerodromnoy" operation of aircraft;
-sea plane with a GDP soar / board an aircraft on water, using vertical takeoff / landing only at the troubled state of the sea (with waves of more than 3 points).
Comprehensive studies of similar schemes allow to expect that the airplane stated in the proposal would be implemented. The introduction of mass-produced propulsion and lifting engines, amphibious landing gear, which is not technically difficult, everyday materials and structures, and small size of the aircraft allowed to count that the proposed plane of GDP in 2-3 years could be created and tested.
But how annoying it did not sound, design of aircraft is not carefully designed, the application was made only on the development of preliminary design. And in Minaviaproma he was treated normally, "What the designers of such turn up and climb in the business?"
As a result, the project was buried, although sailors to him and showed great enthusiasm. The proposed aircraft they beheld the workhorse of approximately the same, which in the 1940s. Lee was 2. "Neprozhorlivy" undemanding, but thus situating the possibility of vertical take-off.
Project progress was not given. In the design office some time later was active in the work on the aircraft VVA-14 and COR-70 was abandoned.
Plane vertical take-off and landing of the CDF-70 had to deal with a wide range of problems that faced the carrier-based naval aviation, from assault and anti-submarine operations before landing and transportation. The design of the CDF-70 — riveted, aluminum, with a reliable corrosion protection, which ensures the normal operation of the criteria of the sea.
The structure of the power plant consisted of two up-and-mid-flight and 4 lifting motor. Regardless of the tasks performed by the mass of commercial cargo or payload was 1 tonne, in the cargo hold in airborne transport version can hold up to 12 people.
Multiple-purpose shipborne aircraft GDP by the need of special equipment and a complete set of modular units depending on the requirements imposed by the customer. Setting the units and devices in mass production could be made on the final step of the assem
bly. So Makarov was calculated to achieve the ability of aircraft assembly in one production cycle.
It was assumed that would be an all-metal fuselage. The fuselage with the wing center section was represented by a single unit. In the forward part of the fuselage is a double cabin crew curb ejection seat. At the bottom was placed surveillance radar of the lower hemisphere, located under the cab could firearms. In the central part of the envisaged two bays wide hoisting engines and cargo bay. The wing consisted of folding and center-console having a negative sweep. In the mechanization of the wing flaps were odnoschelevye at half scale. To control the slope during vertical take-off on the wing tips were made jet rudders. They are the working fluid is air, which was selected from the up-and-propulsion engines.
In propulsion aircraft GDP CDF-70 included two up-and-propulsion engine AI-25 with swivel nozzle. Take-off thrust each — 1500 kg.
Lifting engines RD36-35f (2900 kg thrust each) were placed in the rear and front parts of the fuselage in pairs. Vozduhopoglotiteli are at the top and secured with the valves. Only had four lifting motor. Exhaust flaps data devices should be used engines to control the direction and pitch control during takeoff and landing. Floats were attached to the bottom of the ski runners who appropriated properties amphibious landing gear. For the creation of flooding, and the supplies necessary buoyancy to the floats were attached myagenkie bottles are filled with water landing air.
The damping device is part of the mechanism of production and harvesting of floats. Advantages of such a landing gear lay in the fact that the hydrodynamic properties were determined by the rigid part of the float submerged to the water line, and did not depend on the strain of cylinders which were above the waterline. If necessary, FLOAT-ski landing gear wheel replaced.
Aircraft performance characteristics:
Modification — CDF-70;
Wingspan — 13.00 m;
Length — 14.70 m;
Height — 3.40 m;
Wing area — 12.40 m2;
Normal takeoff weight — 11600 kg;
Mass of fuel — 3000 kg;
Type of propulsion motors — 2 of turbojet engine AI-25;
Type the lift motor — 4 turbojet bypass engine RD-36-35f;
Thrust propulsion engines — 2 x 1500 kg;
Traction hoist engines — 4 x 2900 kg;
The highest speed — 650 km / h;
Cruising speed — 500 km / h;
Practical range — 2400 km;
Service ceiling — 12,000 m;
Crew — 2 people;
The combat load — 1200 kg;
The desired load — 1000 kg of cargo or 10-12 paratroopers.