The most popular and one of the most recognizable fighters under the brand name "MiG" has become a functional fighter, the MiG-21, which is commercially produced in the USSR from 1959 to 1985. This aircraft became the vserasprostranennym supersonic aircraft in the world and managed to take a role in almost all military conflicts. Due to the mass production of the aircraft differed quite a low price, so the MiG-21MF, for example, cost less than the BMP-1. With all of this in China, the export version of the aircraft under the title F-7 continued to be issued until the present time.
The creation of this are popular fighter, which was in service at over 65 countries in the world, and armed with some of them still remain to the present, accompanied by a large project work. Before serial MiG-21 went into mass production in the bureau "MiG" made a series of experimental vehicles under the symbol E-2, E-4 and E-5.
The experimental fighter E-2
Creating experimental fighter planes of the "E" was made possible after the occurrence of a new turbofan engine (TRD) P11-300, this engine is initially designated as AM-11. The development of this engine was conducted at OKB-300, project manager was AA Mikulin. In his own first version of E-1 aircraft with a delta wing was not realized, for the first time took to the sky plane with index E-2 with swept wings. It should be appreciated that the result in the development of this project functional MiG-21 only very vaguely resembled his own "ancestor."
In the constructors fighter then just did not have movements in the motor, which it was necessary to select for the latest promising machine. The main controversy erupted only in determining the shape of the wing. With all this the engineers who had resorted to in their experience. Because at this point the swept wing was pretty well explored, specifically chosen for its experimental fighter E-2, providing for the installation of a wing of 2 guns, HP-30 (while the decision of the government sought to set 3).
Official mission to build a new front-line fighter with the most experienced engine AM-11 (maximum thrust 4000 kgf in afterburner — 5,000 kgs) and a delta wing was received on 9 September 1953. But for the reason that the experience of building aircraft with a delta wing at that time Russian designers were not, and swept wings were practiced not only in wind tunnels, and in the criteria for full-scale operation, it was decided to build the plane in two versions: swept wing and delta wing.
With all of this at a theoretical level, implementation of the delta wing was more desirable because it provided little resistance and achieve a speed of about 1700-2000 km / h A structural advantages in that allows you to position the wing fuel, which increased the duration and the highest range.
Own first flight experimental E-2 fighter has already made Feb. 14, 1954. The fighter was found wing with a sweep angle of 57 ° to the front edge and the relative widths of 6%. To achieve the best takeoff and landing characteristics were applied two-piece slotted flaps and slats. Management of the slope were carried out with two-section ailerons. Then, to avoid reversing the ailerons, which appeared during certain flight conditions on the aircraft wing spoilers were installed.
In order not to delay the creation of the first prototype fighter because of various technical problems that have emerged in the final design of the new engine AM-11 fighter planes to temporarily set slider AM-9. Aircraft with the engine used for testing the aerodynamics and agility test during the industrial trials. By the definition of the main technical flight characteristics newest cars started only after the engines to finish the AM-11.
The factory tests first aircraft E-2A / 1 with the new TRD R11-300 (AM-11) was passed in January 1956. In 1957, someone in the bureau or GACKT index assigned to the airplane MiG-23 (type 63). Slightly altered from the E-2 aircraft actually year stood in anagre, waiting for a new engine. A distinctive feature of this fighter were performed on the wing aerodynamic walls (ridges) that are absent in its predecessor. For the first time in the air February 17, 1956 the aircraft lifted test pilot EDO G. Sedov. Lead engineer fighter step of the industrial test was A. Izotov.
Tests fighter E-2A were pretty hard. The plane was characterized by the highest sensitivity to small deviations from the slope of the control knob at tremendous speed indicator, also pitching, which has been associated with impaired assembly of the control system. Also quite a long time has been spent on eliminating defects motor, for this reason, plane 11 months in non-flying condition. In addition, it was necessary to fight the buildup of transverse and bumpy, which was found when flying at high speed at low altitudes.
Six months later, the factory number 21, was taken to the second plane E-2A / 2, which is presented to the Air Force Institute for state tests. This aircraft in 1956-1957, was made 107 flights (both fighters more than 165 sorties), which allowed them to take off all the main characteristics. Once the resource engine experimental aircraft and equipment was developed, they are simply written off as useless. In the process of testing the E-2A fighter, who had a gross weight to 6,250 kg., Showed the following characteristics: the highest speed — 1.78 M = 1950 km / h, a climb of 10 000 meters — 1.3 min., Practical ceiling — 18 thousand meters range — 2000 km. Data fighter armament versions included two 30-mm automatic cannon, HP-30, and two units for start-up unguided rockets ARS-57, suspended under the wing. For shooting the pilot fighter used sight ASP-5H, besides providing for the introduction of weapons and bomb.
E-2 fighter forever remained in the discharge of prototypes, because the customer has given his preference fighter possessing a delta wing. Prior to this decision serial factory in Gorky was able to build 7 E-2A fighters. Then, almost all due to the shape of the wing fighter, the MiG-21 was in the army nickname — "balalaika".
Experimental fighters E-4 and E-5
E-4 (MiG-21) was a front-line fighter, wielding a delta wing and engine RD-9I. The aircraft was created to accelerate the flight test aircraft E-5, which had the same airframe design. The first flight of the fighter pilot was made June 16, 1955, pilot operated car GA Sedov. During the time of the industrial tests that have come to the end of September 20, 1956, was made 109 test flights. On the plane, in practice, verified airframe aerodynamics E-5 were determin
ed: snap properties and low speed flight, the aerodynamic forces acting on the canopy, the focus plane with declined by 5 degrees. etc.
These tests check assist in practice various methods configuration flow wing — like using 3 aerodynamic ridges on the upper surface of the wing (2 of them were for the edge of the wing) and using 2-ridges disposed on the bottom surface with increasing amplitude wing. The modified fighter E-4 was transferred to the FRI, where he made a series of flights over vast angles of attack.
E-5 (also known as I-500 and MiG-21) — the front-line fighter with AM-11 engine and a delta wing, which, as in the version of the E-4, had three aerodynamic ridge. The plane was built in 1955, has made its own first flight Jan. 9, 1956. The fighter flown by test pilot VA Nefedov. February 20, 1956 a fire engine during ground tests of turbine collapsed. The restoration work was carried out at the factory from 26 March to 19 May 1956. After which the aircraft had to perform eight test flights, but the tests had to break off again due to repeated failure of turbine turbojet engine.
October 27, 1956 the fighter was sent to the factory for further improvements. Prior to February 1957 were working to lengthen the nose of the aircraft fuselage to 400 mm, in connection with which the aircraft engines were installed R-11-300 with an extended prechamber, which led to a shift in the alignment back to 5%. In the end, the modified E-5 fighter resumed test flights of April 1, 1957 until May 26, and took another 13 missions.
Test E-5 fighter aircraft (MiG-21) successfully passed a series of industrial tests. With all of this were proven design performance science technical properties of the machine, except for the flight range due to excess fuel consumption. Resolution of the Council of Ministers on 11 June 1957 E-5 fighter was introduced in small series. In 1957, the plant was ranked number 31 of 10 aircraft under the designation MiG-21 (type 65).
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