First you have taken a very bold scheme interceptor KB Lavochkin "162" — with feathers straight sweep and reverse sweep wing. In this scheme, apparently track down the impact of captured German aircraft. But soon it was abandoned and projected straight-wing aircraft, the relative thickness of which was 12%. A similar wing a little earlier designed for the fighter "152", the equipped engine RD-10. To "152" is the wing was appropriate because slider not allowed to develop a speed of 850-900 kilometers per hour (about 0.8 M). But this does not allow the wing to achieve the declared 1100 km / h (M = 0.95) with a liquid rocket engine Dushkin. It became clear that the designers and managers of MAP hurry with the adoption of these responsibilities for themselves.
Failure of the then Central hydrodynamic Institute emerged in July 1946, when the Draft Design Moskalyova AS in the Ministry of Aviation Industry. It was a naked experimental rocket plane "RM", filled two-chamber liquid jet engines RD-2MZV. Given plane intended for research in flight aerodynamic promising scheme "Boom" at which Moskaliev started working before the war.
This revolutionary aerodynamic design forced the commission to tack MAP expert. The commission included well-known aviation authorities: Chesalov AV Ostoslavsky IV, VI Polikovsky, Zaleski PY Petrov, NI, VN Alekseev, M. Bender, Matiuk NC etc. In the report stated:
"1. Idea to use high-speed aircraft swept wings of small aspect ratio is worthy.
The implementation of this idea faces a number of problems unsolved to this day:
— aircraft such as "Boom" oscillate around its longitudinal axis, to this day, measures to combat this phenomenon are not found;
— small elongation of the wings makes it difficult to maneuver in the longitudinal direction at the time of planting, the solution of this problem is also found;
— at large Mach controls such aircraft are losing their effectiveness, making the aircraft unsafe at tremendous speeds.
2. The development of aircraft with low aspect ratio wing soon engaged in TsAGI.
3. Creating a plane — flying wing of small aspect ratio, which is intended for a flight to significant speeds, can not be taken until the decision of Central Institute Aerohydrodynamic related issues mentioned above. "
In fact, spices Central hydrodynamic Institute was not until the development and research of the revolutionary schemes, because they could not decide and more than urgent tasks. Manage MAP their backwardness in the field of aerodynamics research did not wish to recognize and "early" rejected the project — even in spite of the support given to the command of the Air Force Moskaliev.
But Lavochkin Mikoyan and abandon the assignments are included in the plan of experimental aircraft was unreal.
In general, the problem of aerodynamics was not only for designers combat aircraft. Specificity is developed interceptor was that the limited fuel in store made it possible to draw only one short-lived rally attack, and this imposes significant restrictions on use tools. Fighter, having large ammunition for small second volley, had a much better chance to kill a target, compared with the fighters having second volley of small and large ammunition — the latter simply did not have time to use up the available ammunition. The military took an active role in the discussion of options. Apart from the usual cannon gun proposed to use missile weapons.
In the KB-2 Minselskohozmasha (chief designer Artemyev) failed to develop "turbo" shells TRS-82, launched in 1943. Unlike the RS-82, the data were neoperennye shells and stabilized in flight by rotation around the longitudinal axis by the expiration of the powder gases through 6 jet nozzles little "twisted" with respect to it. With this technology, diffusion of MS-82 decreased, and most believe that the single volley six to ten rounds is better than a long fire from guns.
The design bureau-1 plant number 81 MAP (Director and Chief Designer Webanov IP) made for firing projectiles TRS-82 jet single shot guns ALO-82, which represented a smooth-walled tube having a rear exhaust vent propellant gases. These tools can not only be suspended under the wing, and installed inside the fuselage. The last option significantly reduced aerodynamic drag of the aircraft.
Specifically, such weapons are not applied airplane, "162", developed in OKB Lavochkin: Sets 6 ORI-82 on the fuselage sides. Presumably, a salvo firing capability defeats the purpose of a projectile is: a distance of 400 m — 0.92 600 m — 0.82. True, the TRS-82 had a significant drawback — low maximum speed (about 300 m / s), which limited the range of aimed fire.
Lavochkin Design Bureau has made in the development of the interceptor another important step. Before hitting the target, it should find, with regardless of the weather and time of day criteria. The short duration of the flight only worsened the complexity of the tasks, and without radar spec. sight she did not dare. Back in 1941 the developers aircraft "BI" tried to order a NKEP "radioiskatel aircraft" (RIS) to equip its own Interceptor, but the initiative did not continue.
In the UK, Germany and the United States during the second world war and made commercially implemented so called "night" interceptors, which were equipped with airborne radar. The adoption of the RLC in the fighting has given some results. In the same period in the USSR in the NII-20 NKEP made aircraft radar range meter "Gneiss-2" (1942 year) And "Gneiss-5" (1944), adopted on arms. Huge power consumption, size, and specificity of the location of the antennas (eg "flyer" on the wings and nose) and the need for a dedicated radar operator on board is not allowed to install similar stations in the single-engine fighters. Since 1943, under the night fighters were altered imported from other countries twin-engine bombers, "Boston" A-20-B.-G, flying characteristics were missing for implementing interception.
Imperfection of the stations themselves — the presence of a "dead" zone, poor accuracy and short range — was not allowed to storm it is "blind". Before shooting the final step closer pilot had to aim visually. It's been able to do only light in the moonlit night (hence the name — the night rather than all-weather interceptor). Because the effectiveness of these aircraft is low. For reliable solutions interception tasks needed more advanced on-board radar with a parabolic antenna and centimeter range.
In late 1944, the development of airborne radar systems for various purposes engaged in a specially-made structure MAP Institute — SRI-17,
which was transferred to the developers "gneiss." NII-17 to 1946 was loaded with a huge number of senior government jobs on radar bombopritselam (first copied from the American samples), defendants and interrogators radar identification.
Then work began on the creation of airborne radar sighting and capture the centimeter range of 2-types for multi fighters — "Thorium-1" for single-seat fighters — "Thorium-2". The main designer of the two was the winner of the Stalin Prize Slepushkin AB In the annual report, the NII-17 in 1946 noted, "… the development of the station" Thorium-2 "is for a particular aircraft, the projected principal designer comrade. SA Lavochkin, and, namely, a complete structural part of the design sketch Project "Thorium-2" approved representatives of experimental design bureau Lavochkin. … She was found satisfactory. "
In the SA Lavochkin Design Bureau by the end of 1946 completed the preliminary design and layout of the interceptor did. La-162 was an all-metal cantilever monoplane with an average placement of the wing. Take-off weight was 5 thousand kg of fuel in store — 3 thousand kg. At the tail of the fuselage was located two-chamber liquid rocket engine RD-2MZV. The aircraft was equipped with air-tight cabin booked ahead. Take-off was carried out with two-wheel spec. carts, which was dumped after the separation. Planting should be done on a special ski landing gear and tail wheel safety.
But the need to build the aircraft was put under a huge swing. In the technical report, Experimental Design Bureau for the year 1946 was marked:
Lavochkin was given 5 negative raisonné:
— Dushkin in the engine used nitric acid, and all the "charms" of the use of such motor KB prochuyalo already during the installation on the piston "120R" and La-7R accelerator Glushko RD-1;
— low power and steam-gas generator turbopump unit did not provide electricity to airborne radar;
— required in store fuel tanks are made very thick and fuselage;
— requirement dvigatelisty make fuel inlet pressure of 1 atmosphere forced to take in store compressed air, this reduced the already small thrust;
— slider has a complex automation, a huge number of pipe connections, which operate under the highest pressure (50 atmospheres), which affects the operational reliability.
In addition, the views on the Lavochkin, liquid jet the engine is not the best for the interceptor, and he made the subsequent conclusion: "… of course, may be the embodiment of interceptors with a turbojet engine or ramjet engine, the more so distant future bombers will fly specifically for these engines and at altitudes characteristic of them. Given these judgments, and the extreme difficulty of operating liquid propellant engines, we have completed work on "162" and continue research on the interceptor outfit other engines. "
Aircraft performance properties of an experimental interceptor La-162:
Wingspan — 8.96 m;
Length — 11.04 m;
Height — 3.62 m;
Wing area — 28.30 m2;
Take-off weight — 5490 kg;
Motor type — liquid rocket engine RD-2M-3V;
Power — 1450 hp;
The highest speed at the ground — 1350 km / h;
The highest speed at altitude — 1330 km / h;
Flight duration — 27 minutes;
Rate of Climb — 1825 m / min;
Service ceiling — 18 thousand meters;
The crew — 1;
Armament — 6 x ORI-82.