We present to you «top ten» most modern types of weapons according to the channel Discovery Channel. Well, for those who want to admire this tool in action (with caution, of course), to announce that the programm «Future Weapons» is in May on Wednesdays at 23:00 (Moscow time) on channel Discovery Channel.
Despite the abundance of species of high-precision instruments, an important role in the wars of the XXI century will play good old howitzers.
Panzerhaubitze (Germany). Russian counterpart — MSTA-S
World’s most modern howitzer consisting armed — German Panzerhaubitze 2000 (PzH 2000) production Krauss-Maffei Wegmann (KMW) — the company that makes the best Western European and the Leopard 2. Virtually PzH 2000 became the standard self-propelled howitzer NATO. Panzerhaubitze 2000 — perfect artillery platform. At its disposal — a barrel length of 52 calibers (8 m), automatic loading gun with 60 rounds and 228 modular propellant charges plus modern precision ground navigation system.
PzH 2000 is perfect for the modern concept of war — from a great distance to hit the target with one gulp and quickly leave the position.
Cover the target without sighting shots helps automatic fire control system, which immediately suggests the entire battery. 2000 PzH able to produce 3 projectile 9 or 10 seconds for 56 seconds. Next tempo ranges from 10 to 13 rounds per minute depending on the heating barrel.
Firing range standard NATO projectile L15A2 — 30 km. Panzer-haubitze world record belongs to the middle of the 155 mm howitzers. Last year, on the ground in South Africa howitzer shell fired specially designed V-LAP production on the South African firm Denel 56 km. In this case it was not the limit — Specifies the size range polygon.
In an exciting development Panzerhaubitze used MRSI (Multiple Round Simultaneous Impact), the meaning of which is reduced to the subsequent: making the line of motion of each next shot flatter, PzH 2000 can cover the objective once five shells. For example, a battalion of 24 howitzers capable for 2-seconds to bring down a target of 120 shells. But the weight of 55 tons makes howitzer PzH 2000 slabokonkurentnoy today century, where the troops should move quickly.
Layout of the new century howitzers vengeance tested in the United States.
NLOS Cannon (USA). Russian has no analogues
NNLOS Cannon — Cannon firing indirect fire. In today’s fast maneuver war — still the best protection than armor. Because of enhanced aluminum armor protects only from fragments. Crew — only 2 people: a driver and a gunner commander. All this reduces the weight up to 23 tons of weapons and makes probable airlifted standard army transport planes. NLOS Cannon is one hundred percent automated. Inside — 24 155-mm projectile and propellant charge 72, with the howitzer is able to produce on a shell every 10 seconds at a distance of 30 km. Manage all of the instruments is centralized command and staff vehicle capable retarget located in different places on the common goals of self-propelled. NLOS howitzer equipped with a hybrid box.
Mother of all bombs
This is a very common weapon — a bomb stuffed with ordinary explosives, — has a capacity equivalent to 10 tons of TNT.
MOAB (USA). Russian has no analogues
Massive Ordnance Air Blast — the official name of the most powerful non-nuclear U.S. bomb GBU-43 / B. But there is another MOAB, unofficial transcript — Mother Of All Bombs («Mother of All Bombs»). Bomb produces tremendous memory: its length is 10 m and width 1 m So massive ordnance means not reset even with bombers and transport aircraft with, for example a C-130 or C-17. 9.5 tons of its mass is 8.5 tons powerful explosive type H6 Australian production of the powder which comes duralumin (power 1.3 times higher than TNT). Radius assured destruction — about 150 m, although the partial destruction observed at a distance of more than 1.5 km from the epicenter. GBU-43 / B can not be called a precision instrument, but it is induced, as befits modern weapons using GPS. Incidentally, this is the first South American bomb, used as a control surface lattice wings intensively used in the Russian Munitions. MOAB thought known as the successor to BLU-82 Daisy Sutter («Scythe Daisies»), tested for the first time in March and November 2003 at the site in Florida. Total weapons factory in McAllister was 15 Cyclopean bombs. Military applications similar enough ammunition is limited — they can only clear the huge areas of forest plantations. As anti-personnel or anti-tank gun, it is not very good in comparison, say, with cluster bombs. Especially since the explosion near civilians objects entail significant collateral damage. But explosion MOAB — a powerful psychological tool. As in the case of ammunition big bang, only special abilities to distinguish it in appearance from a nuclear explosion.
Most massive and terrible (after nuclear) weapon — the big bang ammunition.
BLU-82 Daisy Cutter (USA). Russian counterpart — ODAB-500PM
Show in the 1960s and ammunition big bang in this century will remain one of the most destructive non-nuclear munitions. The principle is simple: initiating charge undermines the capacity with the fuel, which is simultaneously in consistency with air forms an aerosol accumulation undermines second detonating charge. Approximately the same effect comes the explosion of domestic gas.
Modern ammo big bang in most cases is a cylinder (length 2-3 times the diameter) filled with flammable liquid spray on a good height above the surface. Initial fuse, whose mass is usually 1-2% by weight of combustible material, is placed along the axis of symmetry of the warhead. Undermining this destroys the fuse housing and spray flammable substance to form an explosive fuel consistency. In the reference mixture should be undermined after Merit sizes clouds providing secondary combustion. In fact, the explosion does not occur after the initial explosion of the detonator (without oxidant fuel can not burn), and after activation of the secondary detonator, with all this delay is between 150 ms and above.
Besides the massive destructive effect ammunition big bang create enormous psychic effect. For example, during «Operation Desert Storm» British special forces, carrying out missions behind Iraqi troops, an event witnessed the introduction of the Yankees’ big bang bomb. Action charge usually made by cold-blooded British action such that they had to break the radio silence and to give information about the broadcast that the Allies used nuclear weapon.
And in August 1999, during the rage against Chechnya Dagestan Dagestan village at Tando where accumulated a substantial number of Chechen militants bomb was dropped mnogokalibernaya big bang (apparently ODAB-500PM). Militants have suffered great loss, but still proved stronger psychic effect. In the following days of the occurrence of one of only a single (particularly single) Su-25 over a populated Fri urged militants to leave the village quickly. There was even argoticheskoy term «Tando effect.»
Multiple launch rocket systems (MLRS), as well as half a century back, remains one of the most effective tools of modern systems. The most eminent in the world MLRS — the famous Russian «Katyusha».
MLRS (USA). Russian counterpart — MLRS «Smerch»
The most effective Western system reactive volley fire MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System), now standing in service 14 states, was developed in 1983 by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control. Initially, before the regular MLRS posed problem: from a distance of 32-40 km reincarnate 30 hectares of land in the common cemetery. With this system manages quite well. MLRS can fill 12 rockets, each of which is equipped with a cassette portion 644 shaped-charge fragmentation submunitions, or 12 rockets with 28 anti-tank mines either. But first experience using the system in Iraq has led to huge losses of the civilian population, which served as an impetus to the adoption of a more perfect version of MLRS, already armed with guided missiles with a range XM30 to 70 km, suggestive by GPS. In August 2005, the system has been tested in combat in Iraq and criteria put into mass production.
Russian response to the MLRS — MLRS «Smerch», fit 12 300-mm rockets and covering 62 hectares at a distance of 70 km. The system is designed SSPE «Alloy» and entered service in 1987. In «Tornado» for the first time been used correctable missiles that allowed increment range aimed fire 40 km, were considered marginal for MLRS, up to 70 km. System «Smerch» — the largest in the world MLRS, rocket mass achieves 800 kg, warhead — 280 kg. For comparison: in MLRS rocket mass of about 310 kg, warhead — from 100 to 160 kg. But comparable compact size MLRS dictated by the requirements of mobility. They simply transported standard military transport aircraft worldwide, can not be said about the «Tornado».
A big plus «Whirlwind» — a wide selection of ammunition: a total of 9 types, which includes cluster high-explosive warhead, thermobaric, with self-elements, etc. Currently, MLRS «Smerch» is in the armies of the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates.
Sam found himself killed
CBU-97 (U.S.). Russian counterpart — RBC-500U
Another instrument of the XXI century — cluster munitions with self elements. It refers to a type of «fire and forget». The principle is simple: over the goal of cluster warheads bombs, missiles and other delivery vehicles emitted small cylindrical elements kitted homing system and warhead type «bump nucleus.» In flight element revolves in the horizontal plane by scanning the surface. After detection of the target at an altitude of 150 meters takes charge of undermining, and the goal is affected supersonic piece of metal.
In Russia, the development of munitions EFP has been known VNIIEF (Russian Federal Nuclear Center — Institute of Experimental Physics). Nuclear physicists call «shock core» timidly «snaryadoformiruyuschaya warhead.» With ammunition themselves too many implicit, at least in Russia. Officially we do not even put into service as bombs RBK-500U and MLRS rockets to «Tornado» with self submunitions. But none of the test results, still less real implementation nobody beheld.
Another thing from the Yankees. The most eminent South American cassette bomb CBU-97 with self-elements, developed by Textron Defense Systems, has become a party to both the TV show Future Weapons, and actual military action in Iraq. Its effectiveness has been so great that are currently being developed successive versions of combat units for mines, artillery shells, multiple launch rocket systems, etc.
Million per minute
Australian company plans to revolutionize small arms.
Metal Storm (Australia). Russian has no analogues
Database design «ultra-modern» rifles were developed at least half a century back. According to the views of the Australian company Metal Storm, «pure mechanics» is outdated — it limits the rate and reliability.
In the late 1990s in Metal Storm developed a system in which there are no moving parts — not counting the bullets themselves. This is the trunk, in which are stacked one behind the other bullets, broken combustible propellant charge. Bullets certainly not absolutely mundane and special design: when a bullet appears before the highest pressure (from the previous shot), it expands and closes the trunk, serving as a shutter. Compressed slugs are ignited independently by means of electrical ignition systems. Such a method makes it possible to achieve perfect accuracy delay between shots. Moreover, it can smoothly reconstruct rate instruments depending on the task by simply asking the right program from the controller electric ignition!
With this approach, there prepyadstviya but designers Metal Storm completely solve them successfully. For example, more than a bullet in the barrel, the longer it accelerates (with a similar amount of booster consistency) and the greater its speed at the muzzle, it affects accuracy. Because the amount of consistency can (and should) be different, depending on the objectives and shooting distance. This problem is easily solved — Ordnance (shop) do not folding and fully loaded into the trunk (it can be as a bullet, and, for example, 40-mm grenades).
Metal Storm developers say that the reliability of their guns higher than «pure mechanics.» It can not jam (just nothing), and the failure of ignition (misfire) does not stop shooting — just follow the bullet pushes quiescent charge from the barrel (ignition controller able to make this amendment, «holding back» after the shot). Another advantage of Metal Storm — its mind-boggling rate: more than a million rounds per minute (for conventional devices such figure is completely unrealistic)!
Shoot down light
It’s entirely possible that a couple of 10-s years lasers will carry ordinary duty in the missile defense system.
Airborne Laser (USA). Russian has no analogues
South American military plans to install a powerful laser on board a flying platform YAL-1A, which is a specially modified for the project ABL (Airborne Laser, «Air laser») Boeing 747F. Development of this weapon began in 1980, but only for the moment power lasers also achieved appropriate values. The main objective of «air laser» will be the detection and destruction of ballistic missiles in the initial step the line of motion.
In the first step test ABL will hit a few aircraft type NC-135E Big Crow, usually acting as a U.S. Army training targets. To this is applied a low energy solid state lasers. The test results will be clear how well ABL is able to track down and hit the floating objects in real flight. Fight with one of the main problems, atmospheric turbulence, to be special adaptive optical system — controlled mirror capable fill deviation and defocus the beam. Lens optical system of the laser is placed on a gyro-stabilized platform in the bow of the aircraft. Her turn provided guidance and target tracking.
Plane will modify: install additional fuel tanks, refitted interior, mount the new tracking systems and guidance systems. Later he will be resettled with 2 continuous chemical oxygen-iodine laser with infrared wavelength of 1.315 microns and a capacity of hundreds of square meters (at a theoretical level — up to megawatts) and reincarnated into a fighting machine.
In the future, the Pentagon intends to make the whole squadrons with similar lasers on board. According to the plan of the U.S. military, they must be held constant combat duty in several acres km from the possible locations of ballistic missiles. When a signal is received on startup (for example, from the satellites) control system detects a missile, bridge and focuses the laser beam on its fuel tanks (they are more vulnerable) and holds it for a few seconds until the strong heating withdraws rocket failure. Will this system to shoot down missiles, spinning on the initial step of the trajectory is not yet clear.
Elephants will change tanks and elephant fitting Holland & Holland — advanced anti-tank missiles.
Javelin (USA). Russian counterpart — «Cornet»
Developed by the U.S. company Raytheon / Lockheed Martin Javelin antitank guided missile today is the most advanced anti-tank gun, which allows hitting all kinds of modern tanks at a distance of 2.5 km. Coupled with the fact the usual management of the complex so that cope with it and the student, once in your life to play computer games. Quite catch in thermal sight «warm» tank, wait capture complex goal, to put pressure on the trigger … and promptly skedaddle from the position — everything else will make the rocket itself. Javelin implements the principle of «fire and forget», in other words, support and retention goals after starting it does automatically.
The complex consists of a 6.4-kg launcher and a single container weighing 15.9 kg, which is hidden inside the 11.8-kg missile caliber 126 mm. Bringing complex to shoot a 30 seconds cooldown — 20 seconds. The rocket launched at an angle of 18 degrees to the horizon, and before hitting the target makes a «hill», hitting an object in the less secure the upper projection.
Unfortunately, in Russia there is nothing similar. The new Russian wearable LAW «Cornet» (weight launcher together with the thermal imager 37 kg, 29 kg weight of the rocket) used another principle: «see-shoot». After detection of the target operator launches and keeps her crosshairs directly to the lesion. Conclusion missiles at the line of sight and retention occurs machine with a laser beam.
In such an archaic system there are pluses: homing systems affect only tanks: pillboxes, fortifications and infantry did not hold the required thermal contrast.
«Cornet» except as a tandem shaped charge rocket 9M133-1 can be used with a rocket 9M133F-1 with a thermobaric warhead comparable in action with mnogokalibernym explosive projectile.
Israeli assault rifle is the latest generation — almost flawless tool for fighting in the town — a light, agile and rapid-fire.
TAR-21 (Israel). Russian counterpart — the A-91
«Bullpup» (Bullpup) — scheme of small tools, in which shop, trigger mechanism and the bolt handle placed back with the trigger (usually inside the butt). An advantage of this scheme is that the dimensions of the data length of the gun barrel can be increased, and means to increment accuracy, while maintaining or reducing the overall length of the barrel long gun weight and size and improving the ergonomic properties
His replacement M16, is not very suitable for urban combat, the Israeli company IMI TAAS (Israel Military Industries) in 1990 began developing the latest generation of rifles by the prestigious presently scheme «Bullpup». In the development of civilian industrial designers participated company Formtech, a puzzle which included not only make ergonomic instrument, and give it a futuristic look. In 1998, the brand new rifle entitled TAR-21 (Tavor Assault Rifle for the 21st Century, the assault rifle of the XXI century «Tavor» Tavor — the mountain in the north of Israel) was presented to the public. More precisely, a whole family of rifles from the army and TAR-21 sniper variant STAR-21 with folding bipod and a telescopic sight with a barrel length of 460 mm to a small-sized version MTAR-21 with 250 mm barrel for security services. All models are designed to fire standard NATO ammunition 5.56 mm (standard also shops from M16).
Housing is made of strong rifles polymers and insertion force of iron and light alloys. Designers abandoned ordinary «mechanical» sight, equipping rifle outer dot sight with integrated laser designator.
Problem of the ejection face when shooting an arrow from the left shoulder creators decided equipping receiver box 2 windows release — left and right. The direction can be changed by rearranging the gate at partial disassembly even in the field criteria.