In the morning, February 23, 1987 in the nearest neighboring galaxy — the Large Magellanic Cloud flashed a bright star, astronomers immediately inscribed in its catalogs under the code SN1987A, which stands quite simple: Supernova in 1987, the first. However, the second and especially did not expect, on average, supernovae flare up once in a hundred years.
If this had happened even in the middle of the last century, this event and would be the lot of some astronomers, as an ordinary person in the world to do it without a telescope at a distance not noticed. But this time, the scientists met this rare celestial event fully prepared: outbreak occurred at 2:00 GMT on 52 minutes, and it apart from the usual, fixed the so-called neutrino telescopes: Baksan underground telescope at Mount Elbrus, the Soviet-Italian liquid detector, located in the Mont Blanc tunnel, and two detectors in Japan and the United States.
The first sensation was that the neutrino telescopes have recorded neutrinos from the flash simultaneously with optical telescopes. This could mean that in the long-running scientific dispute about the neutrino mass defeated supporters of massless neutrinos traveling at the speed of light. But that morning, at 7 hours and 35 minutes neutrino telescopes recorded the second neutrino pulse.
Yet the gap between the world just 5 hours at a distance of 200,000 light years is too little to the neutrino, which has even vanishingly small mass gained so much energy to make it move almost the speed of light. Most likely, the very outbreak of the supernova occurred in two stages. Although the alternative is to mention the existing hypothesis that certain types of massless neutrinos, and others still have mass.
But the surprises do not end: the flash and fixed the gravitational wave detector of Amaldi in Italy, with a registered flow of gravitational energy was unusually high. If we assume that "according to Einstein," he corresponded supernova have approximately two and a half thousand equivalent solar masses. At the same time, other features astronomers estimated weight Supernew only 10-25 mass of the Sun.
But even this was not the main sensation: the impact of the flash of a supernova in a nearby galaxy was recorded by seismographs and ordinary: figuratively speaking, the flow of energy from the flash thoroughly shook the earth. What the Earth and our star too.
In February 1987, celebrated minimum of solar activity, the sun was quite calm, but in the middle of the month there was a slight surge in the number of sunspots. But the day after the outbreak of the Sun's activity was to increase sharply, and from that day began a new cycle of solar activity, which reached a maximum at 90-91 years.
Thus, the earthly instruments recorded real "kosmotryasenie." Although such a possibility, astronomers have guessed long ago, when installed, the optical brightness of the star during its outbreak becomes comparable to the brightness of all the stars of the galaxy. Unimaginably huge amounts of energy in an explosion star splashed out into the surrounding area and, as we now see, it is not limited to the super-bright flash.
The Russian physicist Sergei Mikhailovich Bryushinkin analyzed the apparent inconsistency of the theoretical calculations with terrestrial effects supernova burst in 1987, suggested that much of the energy of the explosion reached Earth in the form of radiation of a new, more precise, more postulated nearly 80 years ago, but has not yet been detected in the laboratory so-called scalar field.
For a brief explanation will have to go back on these 80 years. In the early 20's, until almost an unknown associate professor of the University of Königsberg Theodor Kaluza. While Einstein was actively working on a unified field theory, would combine two well-known at the time of the fundamental long-range field — electromagnetic and gravitational.
While he has nothing intelligent to not work, and suddenly an unknown associate professor sends him to a review article with a ready and very simple and elegant solution to this problem. But the decision is truly revolutionary because it requires the introduction to the physics of another spatial dimension — the fourth or, in accordance with the ideas of the time, offers a new model of five-dimensional space-time.
Kaluza argued that if we expand our view of the world up to five dimensions, then it will be only a single field of force, gravity. That which we call electromagnetism, only part of the gravitational field acting in the fourth spatial dimension, which is still clearly unimaginable. Figuratively speaking, the electromagnetic wave in Kaluza is nothing more than a ripple of this additional dimension.
For a number of reasons which we shall not dwell here, multidimensional theory of the world in those years were not successful and returned to them again only after half a century. By the way, S.M.Bryushinkin himself is the author of "One of the geometric theory of gravitation and magnetism." Curiously, the author of another alternative multi-dimensional theory of the world is well-known Soviet aircraft R.Bartini.
A curious feature of most multi-dimensional theories is that although the authors of one way or another successful "gum up" electromagnetism with gravity, they, like jack-in-box, there is another new fundamental field, the so-called scalar. Moreover, when the five-dimensional theory, physicists have been rejected, the scalar field has continued to be regarded as independent. The theory predicts the existence of his back and zero-zero rest mass, at the same time it has a dual nature in some way analogous to the electromagnetic and, at the same time, as the Bryushinkin, gravity detectors do not distinguish it from gravity, which may just explain anomalously large signal recorded by the Italian gravitational telescope. But there is a fundamental difference: the gravitational wave as electromagnetic, transverse, ie, has an angular momentum and causes displacement of material particles on which it acts. The scalar field angular momentum is not.
However, the five-dimensional theory predicts another possible option: scalar gravitational wave, which is a longitudinal cross-section, as opposed to purely transverse gravitational waves in Einstein's general relativity. In this embodiment, it may be a carrier of the shock wave produced at the final stage of collapse supernova responsible for the expansion of its shell. Such a shock wave will be transported in a vacuum, and interact with other astronomical objects, such as the Earth and the Sun. As the Bryushinkin, in that case could be significant nonlinear effects of shock waves in the presence of strong gravitational fields, similar to the gravitational influence of sea waves from earthquakes (tsunami) at the output of the coast, where the amplitude of the waves increases by orders of magnitude.
For those who are confused by these individuals, though popularly described wilds, let's face it: The flash of a supernova, which occurred even in another galaxy, has a direct and highly significant impact on the solar-terrestrial processes. Not all the experts believe in such a possibility, but the analysis of physical effects reported during the outbreak of a supernova in 1987, requires a much more serious attitude to the problem.
The most famous man in the history of the supernova outburst in the Crab Nebula (more precisely, the nebula — this is what's left of it), occurred in 1054, when the annals of European countries and China have reported the appearance in the sky bright "guest-star", which was visible even during the day. This supernova flared up much closer to the solar system, only a few thousand light-years, and its impact on solar-terrestrial processes according to some experts were sufficiently severe and long-lasting.
On the face of impossible 21.2004