StG 44 — Automatic tool, Russian terminology for automatic, traditional assembly caliber 7,92 x33 mm. Automatic assault rifle is based on the principle of using the powder gases are discharged from the bore with the gas operated mechanism, which holds a longish stroke gas piston. Vapor chamber curb the regulator is located above the barrel. The barrel is locked by gate bias in the vertical plane. Cocking knob on left side assault rifles and the delivery of fire moves along with the shutter. Trigger StG 44 is designed as a single unit with a pistol grip and provides an arrow from firing single rounds and bursts. Translator fire mode was located above the pistol handle.
Sector sight assault rifle allowed to conduct aimed fire at a distance of up to 800 m sight graduations are printed on a special rib, each division corresponded to a change in the distance of 50 m Fly and the slot are triangular in shape. On the StG 44 can be installed not only optical, and infrared sight. When firing at a target diameter of 11.5 cm at a distance of a hundred meters half results fit into a circle with a diameter of 5.4 cm Thanks to the use of the least massive rounds, recoil force when firing StG 44 was less than the rifle Mauser 98k.
As a result, the efforts of German engineers, designers and technicians StG 44 became really common, technologically advanced and a cheap product. For the production of one assault rifle was required 14.3 kg. metal, with a mass of 5.2 kg rifle., and 19-man-hours and 14-hours of machine tools. The production cost of a new automatic weapon was only 78 reyskhmarok. At the same time, the main instrument of the Wehrmacht infantry divisions — magazine rifle Mauser 98k worth 70 marks.
In general, StG 44 was entirely successful prototype of an automatic weapon that ensures effective firing single shots at a distance of up to 600 m, and the queues at a distance of 300 meters StG 44 was the first prototype of the massive guns entirely new class of assault rifles and, of course, had their impact on the creation of all these developments in this direction. Of the drawbacks of StG-44 can be distinguished very huge mass of guns, also highly placed sights that sought from the underlying arrow pretty high to raise his head. By design models expressed only minor prirekaniya. And it pointed to the weakness of the dust flap springs and feeder store, also the lack of fixing strength of the stock, which could collapse during the melee.
StG 44 and curved trunks
Thought gun owning crooked trunk, was not new. The first trial of its creation dates back to the XIX century. This tool allowed the enemy to hit without leaving the shelter: hatch of the tank, trench corner of the structure. In 1942-43 during the fighting on the Eastern Front, the Wehrmacht faced with the necessity of creation tools that could assist with manpower to fight the enemy, who was in the area did not act grazing fire. So the idea of curved trunks gained new momentum.
In late 1943, the German company Rheinmetall has received an order to develop special tools — twisted trunks that were to be calculated under all standards of staffing tools, which used the rifle and machine-gun cartridge of caliber 7,92 x57 mm. The test results showed that the German 7,92 mm cartridge turned out to be very massive for at least some twisted trunk, which led to his Hassle-wear.
Then the German designers turned their attention to the "intermediate" cartridge 7,92 x33 mm. He was shorter and had a significantly lower muzzle energy. The tests showed that the cartridge is most suitable for use with curved trunks. The introduction of the cartridge in the assault rifle, making her the only prototype which in practice could translate the idea of shooting out of the shelter. With all of this machine worked by using the energy of powder gases that come from the gas outlet openings in the gas chamber. When worn on the trunk curved nozzle outflow of gases significantly hampered because their number comes from the barrel into the gas chamber machine increased and could be a precursor damage the machine. This problem was solved in the creation of the back part of the head of special gas outlet openings.
In July 1944, MP 43 assault rifle (the future StG 44) with a trunk curvature of 90 degrees was demonstrated by the higher officers of the Wehrmacht. As a result, spent shooting accuracy has been completely satisfactory. When firing single rounds at a distance of 100 m was equal dispersion of 35 cm Vitality such curved trunk was estimated at 2,000 rounds. Already August 8, 1944 the Office of Management Wehrmacht issued an order at the ready in a short time 10,000 such devices for firing behind cover. With all of this was the decision early because tests have shown that stem from such an angle of curvature can only meet the needs of tankers, not infantry. As a result, company Rheinmetall asked to design trunks bending angle of 30 ° and 45 °, less than 2 kg weight. and survival at the level of 5000 shots.
Such twisted trunks were designated Vorsatz J (project Yot) and were intended for firing from the trenches and use during street battles. The curved nozzle had a fastening element, which was similar to a rifle grenade launcher. In the breech was clamping device, which consisted of 2 bastings and screw. Mounting attachments to the barrel cam can be carried out also by means of bushings and other methods.
To ensure the aimed fire from the shelter were designed two types of sights: Prism and mirror. Shooting of these assault rifles is actually no different from shooting StG 44 with telescopic sights. Periscope sights significantly increased the ability of StG 44 with a special barrel-head. Periscope sight included a fly and a periscope mirror-lens system with which the shooter could conduct aimed fire. The line of sight passes through the machine and fly sector sight, refracted in the lens and deflected down. StG 44, kitted head Vorsatz J, received the designation StG 44 (V). Such a machine can conduct aimed fire at a distance of up to 400 meters.
Do not forget the German designers and soldiers. Increase size of tanks led to the growth of "dead" neprostrelivaemogo small tool places around the tank. To solve the puzzles it can be used StG 44 assault rifle with a barrel-head Vorsatz Pz (Panzer), which had a curvature of 90 degrees. Trunk-nozzle (total length 476 mm, outer diameter 25 mm) was mounted in a ball mount on the roof of the combat vehicle, enabling radial firing. When using the StG 44 (P) dead zones around the tank decreased to 15 m of dispersion in the conduct of such weapons fire ranged from 16 to 50 cm In most nozzles for introducing StG 44 criteria in cramped crew compartment tanks and self-propelled guns had been created and a special shortened Sector 10-round magazine (the original 30 rounds).
Complete all work to create a curved barrel before the end of the war in Germany and did not have time. The destruction of the German economy in recent months, the second world war did not give the ability to bring this development to mass production. Have you seen the difficulties and trials. Nozzles with a curved trunk deformed bullets, increasing dissipation. An additional negative factor was excessive wear on the barrel near the muzzle, which led to a decrease in accuracy. Vitality nozzles also remained low — less than 250 shots.
StG 44 and infrared night sight
By the end of the second World War the German factory produced about 1,000 IR devices for the month. Most of them went to equip the armored divisions. In addition to the rest of the crew Panther, filled with night-vision devices, vpribavok armed and StG 44 with infrared scopes ZG.1229 Vampir. These assault rifles designed for shooters and snipers. On the right side of the receiver, they were bracing for optical 4x scopes ZF-4 and IR sights ZG.1229 «Vampire."
The infrared night-sight Zielgerat 1229 (ZG.1229) Vampir intended for battlefield surveillance in the criteria of natural night light, identifying the target range over the angular values, targeting, monitoring the fruits of fire and making adjustments. The sight was designed in the Forschungsanstalt der Deutschen Reichspost (RPF) in Berlin, and he was engaged in the creation of a leading German optical-mechanical plant — a plant in the town of Ernst Leitz Wetzlar.
For trial operation was launched first batch of 310 machines filled with sights "Vampire". The very sight of an infrared illuminator weighed 2.26 kg., Rechargeable battery to it, which were transferred to a tank on a gas mask and a special wood box still weighed 13.59 kg. Total weight with the most assault rifles, also under the battery box was very impozanten. German designers decided quite original problem of the batteries. Taking into account the fact that all parts of the food habit is uniformly discharged, and absolutely fail, maybe at the wrong time, the designers added a small hand generator with manual transmission. Before you go on a night fighter had to hunt some time to twist the handle of the generator, and the system was ready for battle.