November 13, 2012 1:40
In West Africa, there are people, who for centuries attracted the attention of scientists. This Fulani herdsmen. Where did the people on the continent with a light complexion, why are so many "civilized", where they learned knowledge, no one can say …
Indeed, the Fulani in Africa seem to be aliens. Scientists suggest that the whole way of life, all of its cultural values Fulani carried through contact with highly developed civilizations, but here's what is not clear so far …
Aristocratic appearance, proud bearing, become noble gesture in expression of feelings, a high level of spirituality that people created thousands of stories, legends, epics, proverbs and sayings — all in their life is not like the neighbors. Fulani language — Fula — considered the most promising language among all national languages of Africa.
Fulani, in fact, African trendsetters, they created the famous Phrygian cap, hat, bell, peaked straw hat — hats shepherds. Famous throughout Africa and women's hair with a "cock's comb" of the finest braids, stretched on a special frame made of bamboo sticks.
As a confirmation of the theory of contact with high-Fulani people can be considered and their mysterious holy book called the Book of the legends of the Pharaohs and the Book of the Egyptian magicians. Perhaps the existence of this book talks about being "right-Fulani" in the Mediterranean and Middle East area, where they met with the tradition of the holy books? In general, more and more scientists agree that in ancient times, in the north-east Africa lived homogeneous population, which scientists call the "Mediterranean race of the contact."
Several centuries, scientists can not agree on the origin of Fulani. The intrigue in this puzzle involved in the visual differences from the Fulani neighbors Negroids: Fulani tall, with a reddish complexion and delicate features. Extraordinarily beautiful women attract men figurines from the highest echelons of power almost all African countries. Fulani descendants called Gypsies, sons of Roman legionaries lost in the Sahara, one of the tribes of Israel, and the well-known linguist Meynhof generally believed Fulani Hamites who came from Asia.
Legends times Islamization and the origin of Fulani from the Arabs, who, in order to draw the local pagans to Islam and marry their women. The famous French scientist Maurice Delafos believed their descendants foods referred to in the Bible. They, along with the boom-sosami invaded Egypt and settled in Cyrenaica. In the IV BC. e. their member joined Jews expelled from Egypt by Ptolemy I Soter. Part of this ethnic group traveled to Morocco, and the other — within the current Mauritania, where the III century founded the Ghana government. It is in this African state, and the first time we meet with the Fulani.
It took three centuries Fulani to gain a dominant position among the local people and create in these areas their states: Denianke — in Futa Toro and Diallube — near the town of Masina.
Establishing the State
Fulani were able to create such powerful states that only one mention of their empire made the neighbors tremble! Even the Europeans for the time pass them by. What was the impetus for this unprecedented civilizational leap? First, it is a genetic predisposition: Fulani, most likely, in ancient times was one of the highly developed societies, and second — their privileged economic status associated with cattle.
The role of cattle in the lives of the people speak eloquently of their saying: "Cattle are superior to all, it even more important to the father and mother," "When the cattle die, die and Fulani."
Fulani with sacred awe belong to their herds, they really know how to treat animals, breed them and take care of. Livestock — the main achievement of the foundation of the existence and Fulani. In exchange for the Fulani cattle products are agricultural produce from neighboring peoples. In exceptional cases, you need the money, Fulani cattle are for sale, but sell tend the sick and old animals.
A huge role in the life of the African people played Islam. He became a powerful catalyst in speeding up the social, political and economic processes in the life of Fulani. Apparently, it was the people need to have some guidance in life, and Islam is very good in doing this: the Qur'an teaches us how to behave in all circumstances. Fulani, by the way, an Arabian traveler called "the true children of God," they are like no other nation that adopted this religion, are very strict in the performance of rituals. Islam has contributed to the political and ideological unification of the people. Thanks to him, the Fulbe in a historically short period of time achieved tremendous results.
The burden of revolutions
XVIII century was very important in the life of the people, it was a period of prosperity. As a result of the revolution in 1725 in the Fouta Djallon was cos: given feudal and military state, made up of the provinces, under Imam Fulani. Later in Futa Toro was created like state, which again led the representative of Fulani. At the beginning of XIX century is Masina Sheikh Amadou Barry created a kingdom in the Masina Fulbe, which by good management lasted the whole XIX century.
In 1776, all countries in the mountainous region of Fouta Jalla-on, the Fouta-Toro and the valley of the Senegal River were merged Imamate. At its head stood the leader of one of the Fulani tribe of Abd al-Qadir. The country was divided into provinces, known as E Side. At the head of each of them were Fulani. There was a supreme council that oversaw all the governors in the provinces. The social system was patriarchal and feudal character. Vassals of the rulers-feet dzhallonskogo states found many of the "kingdom" of the people of Guinea Gulf.
Socially-feet dzhallonskoe society consisted of two main groups: the ruling elite of the Fulani and serfs, semi-feudal of the indigenous people of these territories.
In a state of dependence, and were members of artisan castes: tanners, weavers, dyers, potters, blacksmiths, griots (musicians, singers, storytellers). Credit for the creation of a huge Caliphate, with its capital in Sokoto, a powerful empire fulbskoy belongs fulbskomu Muslim preacher Osman.
During the existence of the empire throughout was cleaned up. After the death of Osman Empire began to correct his son Muhammad Bello. With him on the basis of the former independent city-states were created Emirates.
Each of the emirs had before military squads, charged taxes from the population and was required to be with their troops at the first request of the sultan. At the end of XIX century Sokoto was captured by Britain and became part of the British colony of Nigeria.
So, as a result of the internecine wars of conquest and the Europeans killed powerful empire established Fulani. Now it is in these areas of the former powerful states have a greater concentration of this nation.
French colonial policy later even halted development of written language Fulani — Fula, as well as other local languages. Fulani but, unlike other nations, are very reluctant to come in contact with the French, so the French officials even had to learn the Fula to somehow communicate with the local population.