Storm Caucasian Ishmael

In 1781, on the spot settlement of Anapa on the eastern coast of the Black Sea Turks under the French engineers began to build a strong fortress. Anapa was to ensure that the impact of the Ottoman Empire in the Muslim peoples of the North Caucasus and become the base for future operations against Russia on the Kuban, the Don, as in the Crimea. In the process began in 1787, another Russian-Turkish war of Anapa value increased dramatically. Russian military command perfectly understood the value of Anapa and in 1788 for the capture of the fortress isolated detachment under the command of General-in-Chief PA Tekeli, but his campaign ended unsuccessfully to Anapa: after a fierce battle under the walls of the stronghold had to abandon the assault. Second Anapsky campaign in February and March 1790 the order of Lieutenant-General JB Bibikova generally ended in heavy defeat — a failed assault on the fortress and retreat under the attacks of the mountaineers had lost his power more than half of his own composition. Once activated by the Highlanders, their attack on the Russian settlement began to occur much more often.

At this time the commander of the Kuban and the Caucasus Corps Caucasian fortified line was appointed general-in-chief Ivan Gudovich (1741 — 1820). It was the most experienced commander. Gudovich descended from the Polish gentry, who fled to the Russian service in the 17th century. Thanks to comfortably Pope — Little Russian landowner, he received a multilateral education, he studied at the universities of Konigsberg, Halle, Leipzig. At the military service he entered late — at age 19 became the ensign of the engineering corps. Who had a good education officer takes a year to discover adjutant of the most influential nobleman, Count Peter Shuvalov. Later it became adjutant Lieutenant Colonel Gudovich Field Marshal Andrei Shuvalov. Such a rapid growth is explained simply — his brother Andrew Gudovich was adjutant general of the ruler of Peter III. After a palace coup, when the government seized Catherine II, Gudovich came under arrest three weeks, but then he was sent to command the Astrakhan Infantry Regiment. In 1763, he was promoted to colonel. The regiment was oriented in Poland, where he looked after the procedure — elections were the king, in 1765 he returned to Russia. Gudovich successfully waged war in the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774, he distinguished himself in the battle of Hawtin (07/11/1769) Largskom (07/07/1770), Cahul struggles (21/07/1770), and a number of other battles. Was promoted to brigadier. After the war, became a division commander in the Ukraine in Ochakova and Southern Bug River, then in Kherson. In 1785 he was appointed governor-general of the Ryazan and Tambov and immediately inspector of cavalry and infantry (infantry), directly subordinate almighty winner Empress G. Potemkin. When the brand new war with Turkey — in 1887, asked the front and was appointed commander of the corps. Under his command, the Russian troops took Hadzhibey (14/09/1789) and the fortress Kealia (18/10/1790).

Having mission to the North Caucasus, Gudovich had instructed Potemkin strengthen the Caucasian line. This fortified line had a tremendous importance to the defense of the South of. Port tried to antagonize the Russian Federation North Caucasian peoples to maintain their position in the region. For more than a 2-centuries, this limit was a place of constant skirmishes and wars. In 1783, the Caucasian line is divided into two parts: Mozdokskaya — on the left bank of the Terek (3 fortresses and 9 Cossack villages), on the Kuban steppe (9 field fortresses) and Kuban — on the right bank of the Kuban River (8 fortresses and fortifications 19). After the annexation of the Crimea to the Russian Federation has been saying that you need to strengthen defenses along the Kuban. Turkey could make a hit out of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus fortresses and raise support for the strike Highlanders. Grigory Potemkin was instructed to build fortifications on the strip village Ekaterinodar — Malka River — the river Elbe (she ran into the Kuban). Malke on the river opposite the Grand Kabardia outpost built two and three of the Cossack village. Between Kuban and Malka Konstantinogorskaya built a fortress and fortifications 5. On the right bank of the Kuban built three forts, fortifications and 9 per village. These works were carried out in the period from 1783 to 1791 years.

Anapa. Preparing to march

The headquarters of Russian troops in the Caucasus at that time was located in a small castle in the center of the Caucasian strip — St. George. Gudovich immediately inspected the forces assigned to him and fortifications. And realized that the main risk comes from Anapa. It was a powerful fortress with a huge garrison, which had the opportunity to receive reinforcements and weapons by sea, also housed in unsafe proximity to the Kerch Strait. Through Anapa Turks could incite mountain peoples against Russia. Gudovich decided to uproot this "thorn" at the Russian border, the benefit was a war and that appropriate guidance Potemkin.

Turkish fortress was locally based in the old settlement of Sindi — Sindh harbor (syndicates), which appeared before our era. After joining the Bosporus kingdom called Gorgippia, with 13 centuries of our era — the Genoese colony Mapa. Belonged to the Turks in 1475, in 1781-1782 there were built massive fortifications. In Istanbul, understood the importance of the provisions of Anapa and donated significant funds to build strong fortifications under the control of French engineers. When the Turks Anapa has become one of the great centers of the slave trade in the Black Sea. It should be noted that the slave trade was one of the most important and profitable sectors of the Ottoman Empire. Have focused on these activities and the Highlanders, especially adygskie lords. Once in 1787 and 1790 failed two Russian expedition to Anapa, the Turks are sure to secure stronghold. Anapa, along with Ishmael was listed as a strategic fortress.

Gudovich two months preparing a campaign intended to Anapa. Of the various forts and fortifications were brought field artillery, prepared carts (carts) were harvested pack animals. To gather the troops were identified two teams Fri — Kuban to the border post Temizhbek blew down part of the Caucasian Corps, to strengthen Yeiskoe on the Azov coast of Kuban Corps troops were under the command of Major-General Zagryazhskoy (from Voronezh). At the same time the band left pretty Caucasian strength to prevent a likely foray Highlanders.

May 4 at Temizhbeka stood 11 infantry battalions, 24 squadrons of cavalry and 20 guns. Infantry expedition consisted of single-parent (in were about 1 million people) Tiflis, Kazan, Voronezh and Vladimir regiments. Chasseurs of the Caucasian Corps identified three battalions of perfectly cooked and seasoned shooters in the fighting. The cavalry consisted of four squadrons of Rostov, three — Narva, 1st — Kargopolsky karabinerskih regiments of eight squadrons were in the Astrakhan and Taganrog dragoon regiments. Cavalry units were also incomplete. In a campaign also made Hoper, Volgsky, Don Koshkin and Lukovkina shelves. Plus two and a half Grebenski weave weave Terek Cossacks.

May 10 Eysk strengthening the forces were concentrated and the body of the Kuban — musketeer Ladoga and Novgorod, Vladimir and Nizhny Novgorod Dragoon, and two of the Don Cossack regiments, with 16 guns. Only participated in the campaign to 15 thousand people, taking into account the protection of the rear communications, which remained in the small forts along the route of the detachment.

The painting "The Turkish fortress of Anapa." Painter Yury Kovalchuk.

The campaign and the siege of the fortr
ess

The morale of the expedition was high, soldiers and officers are not embarrassed by the fact of the failure of the previous 2-trips. Everyone has heard the news of the Russian were victories on the Danube, including a brilliant victory in Izmail. The soldiers and officers want to glorify the Russian cannon and on the Caucasian front. May 22 of the Caucasian Corps Talyzinskoy approached the crossing, day or two joined forces Kuban corps. Immediately began to build a pontoon and field bridgehead for an attack the enemy. On the way to the ferry Talyzinskoy Gudovich leaving small garrisons in the fortified posts and redoubts to protect the rear and communication. So, on the way to strengthening Yeiskoe built six redoubts of land.

May 29 troops fled without problems on other Preserving the Kuban. However, the Mountaineers tried to damage the crossing, rafting down the river of huge logs of trees, but the diversion failed. In one passage from Anapa to the main forces joined the squad from the Tauride housing (housed in the Crimea), under the command of Major-General Shicai — 3 battalions, 10 squadrons, three hundred square meters of the Cossacks, with 14 guns. They brought with them 90 assault ladders.

The success of the expedition almost everything could be related to the ratio of Russian mountaineers to the body. The Highlanders could greatly complicate the military operation. Because Gudovich showed talent as a diplomat, telling the local feudal lords, that the Russian plan to wage war against the Turks, not mountaineers. He gave the order to release the prisoners of the Circassians, who were attacking convoys, foragers, not to offend the local residents, do not slack crops.

Turkish intelligence to monitor the movements of the Russian corps, but to fight to the fortress of Anapa Pasha dared. Only at the fortress detachment of several thousand Turks, and the Highlanders took the high ground near the river Narpsuho and tried to stop the Russian avant-garde. But the Russian advance units under the command of Brigadier Polikarpov the run crossed the river and went resolutely to the attack, supported the vanguard Gudovich several squadrons of dragoons. Turks and Circassians have not taken the fight and almost immediately fled. June 10 Russian troops came to Anapa, the siege and the preparation for the assault.

The Turks have significantly strengthened the fortress for the arrival of Russian troops. Renewed and deepened the moat powerful ramparts abutted ends in the sea increased palisade. The garrison consisted of up to 25 thousand (10 thousand Turkish infantry and 15 thousand Highlanders and Crimean Tatars), 95 guns and mortars. On the roads there were several ships, with which it was possible to remove the extra guns. In addition, the garrison could strengthen throw the sea reinforcements. There was no hope of forcing the Turks to surrender — the sea just hauled ammunition and food. In the Russian Federation has not been a massive fleet that would be able to Anapa cut off from the sea. He commanded the fort experienced Mustafa Pasha, his assistant was Batal Bey (he once tried to break through the line and pick up the Caucasian North Caucasian peoples against the Russian Federation). In Anapa was also in the military, religious and political favorite of the Caucasian mountaineers, a Chechen Sheikh Mansour. He was a "prophet", a precursor thoughts Muridism — opposed slavery, feudal lords, vendetta, considering that mountain traditions need to be changed to Muslim sharia law. Highlanders raised on a "holy war" against Russia, his ideas were popular not only in the middle of the Chechens, and the Circassians and Dagestan. Had a number of personal success, but was eventually defeated and the remnants of their own forces took refuge in Anapa.

Gudovich cut fortress from the mountains, so that she did not come to the rescue — in the course of the siege the enemy a couple of times trying to get through to Anapa, but was repulsed. The left wing cut the road to the fortress Sudzhuk-Calais (on the site of modern Novorossiysk). The main forces stood on the left bank of the river knolls squad Shicai on the right bank. On the night of June 13, put the first siege battery. In the morning, the Turks opened strong firing and sent 1.5 million unit to damage the battery. Protected Battery two hundredths of rangers under the command Zagryazhskoy met the enemy unanimous volley, and then knocked the bayonet. Turkish detachment was overthrown and fled in panic, Russian hunters chased at the gate of the fortress.

By 18 June, it was built a few siege batteries. They have this day began bombing the fortress. The Turks initially responded vigorously, they had the advantage in numbers and power tools. Artillery duel ensued, in which defeated the Russian gunners. Turkish artillery fire soon began to die down, NIGHT MODE Anapa made the sign of a great fire — burning Pasha's palace, garrison commissary store and other buildings. The next day the Turkish batteries almost did not answer, suppressed Russian artillery fire. Turkish commanders committed a big mistake by having in hand the significant force, it renounce attacks. The garrison lost heart. Gudovich offered an honorable surrender, exit from Anapa all Turkish troops. Mustafa Pasha was ready to surrender, but made against Sheikh Mansour. He was a powerful figure, and the Turks refused to surrender the fortress.

Assault

Gudovich made a very risky decision — to take Anapa storm. He had the courage to attack the strong fortress with a garrison of 25 million with a total of 12 thousand people. But there was no alternative — with the sea could come strong reinforcements, it could change the situation in favor of the Turks, and in the rear was close to 8 thousand Circassians and Turks who constantly worried about Russia's positions, hindered search of food and feed for horses. The right to organize the siege of the Russian military command could not, because it lacked mnogokalibernoy artillery and engineers. The letter of the occurrence of a massive Turkish fleet at the Dniester, which meant that at any moment might seem enemy ships with reinforcements and guns for the fortress.

The main impact Gudovich decided to inflict on the south-eastern part of the fortress wall. It was formed on 5 drums of columns: the four main pillars of 500 men each were to strike in the southern part of the fortress, the general command of Major-General made Bulgakov and Depreradovich. Behind them were provisions that were to reinforce the columns in the event of failure of the first assault, or be used for the development of success. There was also a general provision under the command of Brigadier Polikarpov, he had to react to the changing situation in any direction. Fifth assault convoy of 1,300 men under the command of Colonel Apraksina had to make a diversion to the task to break into the city along the coast of the sea. In addition, taking into account the risk of impact from the rear, has been allocated 4 million Zagryazhskoy detachment under the command of which was to cover the likely impact of the opponent out. Marching supply train (mobile fieldwork), guarded by three hundredths shooters with seven guns. In the end, took part in the storming of less than 6.4 thousand people, 12 thousand Russian troops.

On the night of June 21-22, assault columns and all parts positioned. Moved stealthily, trying not to scare the enemy. Exactly at midnight batteries began bombing the fortress. Under the roar of guns and explosions storm troopers approached even closer to the fortifications. After an hour or two Russian cannon batteries fell silent. Turks evenly calmed down, leaving only the walls of the guard and gun crews. Turkish command apparently did not wait that Russia so soon will go to the assault, with the walls d
id not even watch. Just in front of the main gate put up an ambush of 200 people. But the Turks behaved carelessly, went to bed, Russian hunters crept to him in an instant all perekololi, without a single shot being fired.

Half an hour before dawn, the Russian batteries have caused another fire attack and assault columns silently went on the attack. Russian troops were able to get to the counter without a ditch and began to attack. The Turks responded by firing fierce. First on the shaft, and then broke into the fortress walls left flank column under the command of Colonel Chemodanova were captured Turkish batteries. The colonel himself Chemodanov received three wounds and relinquished command of Lieutenant Colonel Lebedev, who brought reinforcements.

The second column of assault under the command of Colonel Mukhanova, she was one of the dismounted dragoons, also breaking the fierce resistance of the enemy, made its way onto the shaft. Dragoons captured the enemy's battery, with the arrival of reinforcements took another section of the shaft, step by step conquering strengthening. Then he went down into the city and engaged the enemy in the most Anapa.

A more difficult situation is the third attack on the site of the column of Colonel Keller — she stormed the strongest enemy's reinforcement — a bastion at the middle gate of the city. Attackers could not immediately break into the shaft, bearing huge loss. Keller was seriously injured, he was replaced by Maj. Veryovkin that brought reinforcements. It must be said that such loss in the middle of the commanders were at the time the mundane — from the time of Peter I was brought up that the commanders were in the forefront of military units. Soon the third column was able to break through the shaft, then it supported the fourth column of Colonel Samarin.

Less well acted fifth column Apraksina, which operated off the coast. The Turks had time to prepare and upset column musket and cannon volleys. Apraxin took a fighter squadron and began to prepare for the latest attack.

Gudovich thrown in a part of the general reserve under the command of Polikarpov — six hundred infantry and three squadrons of dragoons. Dragoons galloped up to the gate, dismounted and entered the fortress (arrows dipped drawbridge). The dragoons were able to break up the central quarters, Mustafa Pasha threw them against all the people who were at hand — in the center of Anapa bloody melee ensued. Dragoons fought effectively in an environment that is very far off the main power. Gudovich again took the risk and thrown in the rest of the cavalry in reserve — Horse attack came just brilliant. Squadrons of the move broke into the city: one group has captured the enemy's battery and opened fire on the enemy with dense rows, the other cut through for themselves the way to the sea. At this time Gudovich sent to the city of the fifth column, part of its continued strengthening of clean, others began to seize the city streets. Increased the pressure of all the other columns, the Turks began to run to the sea. To completely break the resistance of the enemy. Gudovich entered into battle last reserve — four hundredths of rangers. This was the last straw, the enemy was throwing weapon masses and beg for mercy. The last defenders were driven into the sea, where they were to give up. Escaped only a hundred or two hundred (on ships). The crews of the ships and vessels do not have to select people and fled in panic.

It should be noted, not only the determination Gudovich, and his caution. It is not in vain in the left rear of a strong group led by Zagryazhskoy, which has not taken part in the assault. The Turks and the Highlanders, who were expecting their own hours in the mountains and forests, and decided to hit it not rear outposts, the battle could end in a very sad. NIGHT MODE still tried to capture the enemy supply train, but the direction of the attack repulsed. In the morning, seeing that there is fighting in the fort, 8 thousand enemy unit went on the attack. The first blow was the Terek Cossacks and Greben, they withstood the pressure and were cut virtually surrounded. Russian commanders reacted swiftly — the infantry and the cavalry came to the rescue of the Cossacks. The joint efforts of the enemy threw her into the woods. The enemy has a couple more times bravely went on the attack, but was repulsed everywhere and suffered huge losses — Russian troops affected an advantage in weaponry and training.

"Russian Gate" (the locals call them "Turkish") — the remains of the fortress, a monument of Ottoman architecture of the 18th century, as they looked in 1956.

After reconstruction in 1996.

The results

— The Turks and the Highlanders have lost only killed to 8 thousand people, a significant number were drowned in the sea, 13.5 thousand were captured. Including the Turkish command and Sheikh Mansour. 130 flags were captured, all instruments (Part killed in battle), thousands of firearms and cool guns. Whole Russian army got — a big powder magazine and garrison ammunition. Russian Army has lost 3.7 million dead and wounded (according to other sources — 2.9 million).

— Sheikh Mansour brought before the eyes of the Empress to St. Petersburg and then in reference to the honorary snow-white sea, where he died.

— Russian forces have once again confirmed their own high level of training and morale, capturing the strong fortress — "Caucasian Ishmael," even though the assault was 4 times less than the defenders. Gudovich showed himself in this campaign as a brilliant military commander. This impact will be for Ports powerful shock after the fall of Ishmael.

— The fact that Gudovich made the right decision, did not expect, confirmed the arrival of a day or two the Turkish fleet. Gudovich ambushed and Russia were able to capture one ship, which first came to the shore. The Turks, soon learned of the fall of the fortress on the Weave the corpses, it was the people, which is recessed into the flight or were thrown into the sea dead (such an unlimited number of dead just could not bury), panicked. The crews and soldiers landing refuses to go into battle — Commander wanted to bomb Anapa and maybe put landing. Turkish commanders were obliged to withdraw the ships in the open sea.

— Gudovich developed success — located close to the Turkish fortress Sudzhuk-Calais (on the site of modern Novorossiysk) was expelled from Anapa separate unit. At his approach the enemy burned building and fled to the mountains or on ships at sea, leaving 25 guns.

— Anapa on the world of Jassy in 1791 returned to the Turks, but to strengthen killed, the population (up to 14 thousand) increase in the brand of a settlement (Crimea region). Quite Anapa became part of the Russian Federation in the Treaty of Adrianople in 1829.

Monument to General Ivan Gudovich in Anapa.

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