One of the little-explored cases of this kind are the actions of a severe, occurred at the end of August 1958. Oh they have a story written in the book 15 years ago, Vladimir Kozlov, "Mass mess in the Soviet Union under Khrushchev and Brezhnev," which appeared quite small circulation, and a couple of newspaper articles.
It would seem that the general situation in the country at that time was quite peaceful, but not in the reconstituted in January 1958, the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Of course, the potential for conflicts in this country was "ready" for years, if not decades. Check out the Chechens and Ingush in February 1944, it became a kind of "time bomb" that worked already in the first years after the start of their return to their homeland. In June 1957, the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party considered the issue of "unauthorized crossings Chechen-Ingush families (as in the text. — Ed.) In the Grozny district of the town." Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR immediately puzzled republican ministries (Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek, Turkmen SSR and the RSFSR) by creating special check-Fri on the likely routes of following "returnees" nodal railway stations and roads. They are, however, posed little problem beliefs and act in a manner to avoid military action. But a significant portion of people evicted by the summer of 1958 have already returned to their homes.
Conflict of interest
In discussing the causes of conflict the late 50-ies in the region, we should not discount the fact that the restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (recall that in the years 1944-1957 was the Grozny region) followed by redrawing of administrative boundaries. In principle, almost all of the pre-war borders were restored (only Country area has been left in the North Ossetia, in the late '80s led to the ethnic conflict). But let us not forget that in areas that have been passed adjacent republics, as in most of Chechen-Ingushetia in twelve years already there are new people, and new, as currently adopted read, "economic realities". And returning the native population rapidly found a niche that he was obviously low. And the rate of return, as we have already noted, there were enough highest. If the plan in 1957, the region had to go back 17 thousand families, we actually turned them twice. Already in February 1957, the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs to submit a letter in which it was noted that returning Chechens and Ingush aggressively sought, that they possessed "in those villages and even houses in which they lived before the eviction." And these houses were occupied by settlers from the adjacent regions, also from destroyed during the war of the cities and villages of central Russia, which in the years 1944-1953 are routinely sent out to the Grozny area.
First conflicts over the return of supplies and attempts to restore the economic independence of the indigenous population were noted as early as 1955. Despite the fact that the restrictions on the special settlements were then withdrawn only with the members of the Communist Party, hundreds of Chechen and Ingush families made their way through the cordon home and tried to return to their homes. Local people and the party-Soviet administration to this were not ready. Lack of housing, work and eagerness to return the status quo escalating into conflicts, which were both killed and wounded. But all this was happening, mostly in rural areas. The capital city of the republic to the harsh summer 1957 was like home.
The special status of the town due to the fact that it was founded not by Chechens and imperial Russia as a military fortress and later became an international city, and with a well-developed industry. The main industry was of course the oil, and the number of Chechens who have worked in the oil fields in the pre-war years, counted units. In the second half of the 50's it seemed that much Grozny is still out of international conflicts. Questions returning home and other accessories out there actually did not appear, and the attitude of the authorities enough to highest household crime was a "Leninist". In compiling information and reports state component is often cleaned and allocated or purely domestic reasons, or "anti-Soviet." And that came out in the harsh in from 23 to 27 August 1958, what was the background of the events described in the material that we provide to judge our readers pochetaemym …
Murder on the dance
In the municipal archives of Russian social and political history is not stored so long ago declassified information about the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the RSFSR massive mess in the severity of 26-27 August 1958, signed by the Deputy Minister of Police Commissioner of the 2nd rank Abramov. She was not sent out, and in the department of administrative and commercial and financial departments of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the RSFSR, as became clear from the later events, reached the top management of the Central Committee (the republic went secretary of Ignatov, and the issue was discussed Members of the September Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU).
It starts with the document is disturbing words: "The unrest in the mountains. Severe that took place on August 26-27, provoked anti-Soviet criminal and criminal elements used nationalistic and chauvinistic attitudes of individuals, involved a part of this unbalanced ladies and young people, and on his own liking were anti-Soviet. "
And then to help (her spelling we remain here and more) with all the directness police said that the August 23, 1958 in the village of Chernorechie (a suburb of the Terrible) was committed sin. "In drunkenness and disorderly conduct" Chechens 20-27 years of age Mal'sagov, Ramzaeva, VEZIEVYM and RASSAEVYM chemical plant worker was killed and wounded Stepashin locksmith KOROTCHEV the same plant. " Nor about the real causes of the murder or the events that accompanied him, in reference — not a word. Just killed four Chechens 1st Russian and 1st wounded — and all. In fact, things were a little different.
August 23 was a Saturday. Vladimir Korotchev, that wounded then 19-year-old mechanic chemical plant, was drinking with 4 Chechens (one was a non-working citizen, the other a loader, the third — the tractor, the fourth — a mechanic trust "Selstroy." At some point, booze "not enough" and the "broken" Lulu Mal'sagov claimed by Korotcheva "put another bottle." During the ensuing altercation between them took out a knife and Mal'sagov Korotcheva hit in the tummy. wound, however, was easy, and the victim fled to the hostel. As noted in based on archival materials of the book "The massive mess in the Soviet Union under Khrushchev and Brezhnev," developed subsequent follow manner. Veziev Member of booze, fruit and vegetable farm tractor, I decided to go to the hostel to check on the wounded man. Behind him
walked and others. Mal'sagov As he saw his own wounded "enemy", he took out a knife and tried to finish him off. prevent him from Veziev which Mal'sagov cut with a knife hand. Chechen "guests" retreated, but were not satisfied. they went up to the dance in the near House of Culture, where he met with the 22-year-old chemical plant worker Eugene Stepashin and his friend, military sailor Ryabov, which came home on leave from Sevastopol to parents. Between Chechens (their by then was already a large group) and 2 Russian girls because there was a quarrel. Ryabov managed to escape, and Stepashin slipped and fell. His first mercilessly beaten, and then hit him with five stab wounds. He died at the scene of the crime, and the police arrived with a delay "in the hot pursuit" detained two members of the killings, putting them in the preparatory chamber conclusion.
Recall that in the circumstances of the murder as the Help Deputy Interior Minister of the RSFSR called "hooliganism and drunkenness." However, when listing in the events bureaucrat they still shared by Russian and Chechen, but did not focus on that accentuates.
It would seem that in a multinational rigors of murder (and in the first half of 1958, if they believe help the Interior Ministry, there were 10) were not uncommon. But the death of the young working around the house all of a sudden culture for the authorities was, as they now read, "resonant crime." And it had consequences that no one could have predicted …
The other day mutiny
When I became acquainted with the materials relating to the events in Grozny in 1958, then made a conclusion that the authorities had some abilities in order to prevent spontaneous actions, and even more riots. But the Russian system at that time was so fixed and incapable of meaningful actions that could not even predict the crisis, and even more so hinder it. In general, the use of my word "prevent" has already taken place, but in a different context.
Resonant killing large factory worker, of course, did not go unnoticed factory management. There was even created the commission to organize the funeral. But when relatives, friends and co-workers have asked to set the coffin of Eugene Stepashin factory club, they were denied — "City Committee does not recommend." Authorities intensively to prevent farewell to the dead was a public. No appeal to the Town Committee, Executive Committee and Provincial Committee Party results are not achieved. As a result, friends and family had to deal with organizational issues without the help of others.
To me, as a historian, understood the motivation of party bosses: farewell to the factory club could exacerbate smoldering ethnic conflict, much less the murder, although it was domestic, could, well, and it was already getting political coloring. But in the arsenal of powers, of course, there were many methods to quit the situation under control. In public, to promise a thorough investigation and punishment of the murderers, with the assistance of a funeral for a serious law and order police forces, the KGB and even military units. Obmyslit issue of transport for all participants to exclude the movement of the column on foot, hold a funeral for the municipal account, announcing it, etc. But the authorities have preferred to just keep quiet.
In his own home was killed, it was unrealistic to organize a farewell: a narrow corridor is not allowed, the club put the coffin rebuked. For friends and family, it was decided the other day funeral (it was August 25 in 15-16 hours) to put the coffin killed Eugene Stepashin in the garden opposite the house of his wife.
The certificate Ministry of Internal Affairs of the RSFSR is described as follows: "In the funeral STEPASHIN participated chemical plant management, Komsomol members and workers. The funeral was scheduled for August 26. In the day's funeral the coffin was set in the morning (we all know that he was taken the other day by day. — Ed.) In the front garden girl friend was killed that interested in the huge number of people. Unknown persons in the village and at the chemical plant Chernorechie before the funeral distributed anonymous leaflets provocative. "
The record is not, unfortunately, the leaflets themselves (they are likely to have been withdrawn and the KGB kept in the archives of the organization), but the existing documents give an idea of how the "uncontrolled" farewell to the dead workers grew into a massive mess. Already in the evening farewell to the place began to come Chernorechye inhabitants. At first, they were 10's and later weave. And the initiative to hold a rally and appeal to the management of the country have undertaken not "hooligans" and fully responsible, respected and honored people. Coupled with the survivors in a skirmish Ryabov came to the house of a veteran oilman who was awarded the Order of Lenin, the disabled worker Leonid Myakinin. At the coffin dead, whom he knew well Myakinin said: "The Chechens killed Russian — that one, the other, do not give us a relaxed living. Need to write a joint letter on behalf of the Russian people to collect signatures, select the person who will take a letter to Moscow asking directions to us in severe Commission and if the Commission does not, let him come himself comrade. Khrushchev to deal on the spot. "
This performance veteran (at the time he was 73 years old), who lost both legs in the production, was supported by the gathering. At night the murdered friends agreed that if a memorial service in Chernorechie rebuked (and the authorities removed all the ads about the rally, which were written by hand and hung in crowded places), then the coffin on their hands they shall bear to the party regional committee to hold a rally there.
For unknown reasons, we were on the certificate, signed by the Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, no mention of the fact that to about 13 hours per Chernorechie yet arrived party leaders — secretary of the Chechen-Ingush regional committee of the Communist Party and the staff of the regional committee of four. With them it was half the 10-ka uniformed services, and most of them in civilian clothes. The role of the Regional Secretary reflected in the fact that he forbade any speech before the removal of the body and has given instruction to take the coffin to the cemetery on the machine in order to avoid the funeral procession.
But the mood of the crowd, and they gathered more than a thousand people, it was different. At 15.30, in spite of the "indication Regional Secretary," they lifted the coffin on his hands and moved toward the center of town to get to the regional committee, and later another 5 km to carry the coffin to the town cemetery. During the procession weight increased, and the "hostile elements" appealed to the citizens "with nationalist and chauvinistic remarks." At this point, to control the party realized that the case goes to the massive mess, and they began to "take action". In sent to the Central Committee of the CPSU help states: "At the direction of the Secretary of the Regional Committee CPSU. CHERKEVICHA, MIA Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was trying to change the route of the funeral procession to the cemetery, why were blocked by police officers and motor vehicles of the street leading to the regional committee of the CPSU. "
By this action of the party leaders of the republic only pushed the marchers to action. Open confrontation between the people and the government was imminent.
First storm of the Regional Committee
Even the dry line of police reports give an idea of how great was the intensity of emotions in the severity of the evening of August 26, 1958. As reported to the Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs of the RSFSR, the mass broke throug
h the cordon not numerous, turned the car was blocking the road and went on Lenin Square to the Regional Committee. There's coffin was installed first on the ground, and later to the table, brought to work near the book market. By 7 o'clock in the evening, it became clear that Ukryvsheesya regional party in the building and management of the republic and the Russian town on the public to talk to citizens not lust. And it's even more excited the audience, and for the most part no longer residents Chernorechye and chemical plant workers, and those who joined the convoy and spontaneous meeting. Friends and relatives of the deceased (about 200 people) succumbed to the entreaties of factory management and the machines went to the cemetery. A seven-thousandth the mass (to remind readers that the entire population of the Terrible in 1958 was 240 thousand people) remained in the area and achieved performance of "decision-makers". "Responsible" did not dare to appear, and at 19.30 the police cordon (of 70) was broken and a "group of citizens" stormed the regional party. Citizens have tried to take out the square of the Prime Minister of the Republic Gayerbekova and other control, but appeared in time the KGB and the police managed to fight them off and drive out "invaders" from the structure.
When a regional committee pulled up reinforcements (about 120 servicemen of internal troops), the Secretaries of the regional committee Cherkevich and Saiko, also secretary of the City Party Committee Shepelyov under the protection of the congregation came and replaced in order to appease the masses, claimed complete mess. A few minutes later they had to quickly retreat … And in the 2nd hour of the night and reinforced the cordon was broken, and the young (it was headed by the students of a vocational school) actually broke into an empty building regional committee. Note that during the first storm of the regional committee to "invaders" was to find and bring to the people of the Republic of control. Special traces of destruction and vandalism on the premises was not. Only three hours of the night by the police and the KGB building was cleared, the remnants of the protesters dispersed, and 20 people (in the main, intoxicated) were detained. Eleven were in the bullpen, but after asking the person in the morning and they were released.
It seems that everything has calmed down, restored order in the town. At the regional committee was reinforced by a police patrol of 15 men, and the police chief went to sleep. If they had only imagined what awaits them in the next day …
The capture of the Regional Committee, the Interior Ministry and the KGB
First citizens Severe buffed recently appeared on Lenin Square at seven o'clock in the morning. The reason for their appearance became widespread rumors recently that at 9 am at the structure of the regional party committee held a meeting with the role of Governors of the CPSU and the Soviet government, which had Tipo NIGHT MODE to arrive from Moscow. In the mass of circulating leaflets. Their content was followed by: "The leaflet. August 26th our friends sneaking coffin with the corpse of the murdered Chechens working by the Regional Committee of the Party. The police instead of taking measures to punish the murderers arrested 50 people of our workers. So let's at 11 o'clock in the morning take a job and go to the regional committee to seek their release. " These leaflets were distributed and at the chemical plant, and "distributors" were that the garage has machines that are prepared to send workers to the rally. And indeed, the cars were! Part of the chemical plant workers finished work and went on Lenin Square.
And there is more to the 10 am gathering realized that there is no "Moscow commission" will not. More active part of the rally, pushing the police officers broke through the main entrance to the building. The Help, directed the Interior Ministry to the Central Committee of the RSFSR, this explains as follows: "By 10 am, at the Regional Committee of the mass gathered to 5 thousand people, among which most of the people were curious. At this time in the premises of the Regional Committee and the square was 65 officers and 120 soldiers Interior Ministry troops, led by Comrade Minister. Drozdov, and his deputy, Comrade. Shadrino.
Not paying attention to the requests and demands of the Regional Committee of Governors and the Interior Ministry to disperse, hooligan elements broke through the cordon and rushed into the building of the Regional Committee, which rampaged, perpetrate violence against the secretary of the city Party comrade. Shepelevu, chairman of the executive committee comrade. Bryksina, Deputy. Chairman of the Council of Ministers comrade. Dorokhova, Deputy. Interior Minister Comrade. Shadrino and others. "
Party Secretary Shepeleva took to the streets to force the act, but in the end he was not given read, and just very beat up. After a while the protesters pushed out of the regional committee of the structure, but the event lasted. A truck was a microphone, which were "angry", I'd even said "highly disgruntled" citizens. The requirements were different: from the deportation of Chechens and Ingush to stop work in the factories, to the release of the detained recently (in fact, they have already made in the morning).
And in the hour of day or the structure of the regional committee began the rout. Mass again broke into it, filling all space. Was broken furniture, broken crockery, glass in the windows, ripped and burned some documents, including hidden files, spilled ink. In the dining room were open faucets and taps, gas burners. And found a tool that, but managed to take out. We note, incidentally, that the employees were asked regional arm them for self-defense, but the resolutions of the first Secretary-General (and only he could give such an instruction) was not followed. Most likely, that's why the party functionaries were left alive, though some of them are very beat up.
Minister of Internal Affairs of the Republic and the first management failed to capture, but the deputy minister Shadrin very hurt. About 17 hours, it was taken out of the square and, beating, led to the building of the Interior Ministry. Weight, breaking the resistance of rather weak, broke into the building. Opened the doors of offices, found detainees. Most unusual that during the preparatory cameras capture their findings in Eugene were sitting and murderers Stepashin. But the mass for some reason did not touch them — found those who were recently arrested during a rally. The certificate Ministry of Internal Affairs of the RSFSR of this episode is said quite dryly: "Being at the structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs cordon was creased, the mass broke into the structure of the Interior Ministry, the KGB and the premises bullpen, where commit predatory acts of daring to over 2-hours. After that, the mass returned to the regional committee, which has continued to commit excesses. "
About 20 hours in the occupied regional committee came 44-year-old Shvayuk Jora, a senior hydraulic engineer Gudermessky farm. He brought them with his own hands written a draft resolution of the meeting:
"Given the manifestation of the Chechen-Ingush population brutal deeds to the people of other nationalities, which is expressed in the massacre, murder, rape and izymatelstvah, the working people of the town Crucible for the majority of the republic offer:
1. From August 27 to rename CHI ASSR to the Grozny area or a multinational Soviet Socialist Republic.
2. Chechen and Ingush populations to allow to live in Grozny region of less than 10% of the total number of people …
3. Denying all the benefits of the Chechen-Ingush population in comparison with other nationalities … "
This became the archival document (and its printed and c
aptured obkomovskih blanks) as quoted in the book "The massive mess in the Soviet Union under Khrushchev and Brezhnev." By the way, on the court in September 1958 Jora Shvayuk did not plead guilty, saying that their actions are not denied, but does not consider them criminals, and added that his project "is not aimed at inciting national hatred."
First victim appeared in the afternoon. Weight seized 2-imprudently caught near the area of the Chechens and Mataeva Temirova, which is very beat up. The first of them soon died. Then they began to stop all cars "to identify persons of Chechen origin," but other murders followed.
You can not say that the group of secretaries of local party organizations did not try to stop or at least slow down the development. It was too late. They do not listen and lusted beaten. A mass trapped in the regional committee under the banner of the reddish went to the radio broadcasting station, which is guarded by only three fighters, barricaded the entrance. According to some reason (most likely, having received information that the transmitter is turned off), the protesters did not seize the building and recovered on long-distance telephone exchange. Guard met their machine-gun fire. One of the workers named Andrianov was killed and his wife wounded had to cut off his hand. The shooters fighters took refuge in the building, and the mass was leaked to the telephone exchange. "Talk to Moscow" for him, but could not — the phone line was out of order.
Fri followed, in which the rebels rushed became the post office, where in the end managed to get through to the reception Khrushchev. Already mentioned by us Shvayuk Jora asked, "Do you know what's going on in harsh that people waiting for representatives from Moscow, it is necessary to put an end to massacres? Things went so far as to seek the return of some of the Grozny and Chechen return … "
In Moscow, of course, knew all about. In the afternoon, it was decided in the evening to introduce troops into the city. But previously been captured station and two with excessive hours delayed departure of the train, Rostov-on-Don — Baku.
Arrival of several thousand well-armed military rapidly Cropped situation. At first they tried to throw stones, but the army units, acting butts (marked in only a few cases of fire in the air), is rapidly dispersed the crowd. In the first half of the night was unlocked railway communication, and by two o'clock taken control of all previously occupied the building. The town was under curfew from 22 pm to 6 am, which was in force for a number of days. All municipal offices, points of contact and transport hubs to August 30 were protected by the armed forces. Now the order in the town was indeed restored …
Oh, what-what, and in the Soviet system of non-real justice can not be incriminated. The investigation and the tribunal were, by today's standards, fast. 2-the assassination of Eugene Stepashin is September 16 (in other words a bit more than three weeks after his arrest) was convicted of 1st to capital punishment — death, the other — to 10 years in prison with five additional years 'deprivation of rights' .
On the night on August 27 were arrested in the events. Clearly the number of those arrested (and engaged in detention and the Interior Ministry and the KGB) is unclear. Curious detail: a police inquiry about the events in the harsh dated September 4, but it has the following words: "In the course of these and other events from August 28 to September 7 (emphasis added. — Ed.) Arrested for his role in the mess 80 people 45 of them were arrested. Submitted along with the materials to the proper jurisdiction for the KGB 9. Arrested 21 people in the middle of no fixed occupation (one morphine, three anashista, a drunkard, a speculator, a pickpocket), 11 previous convictions. KGB during this time arrested 14 active rioters. "
By 15 September at the operational records were taken 273 participants in the riots and bullies, and 76 of them were arrested. Interior Ministry filed 58 criminal cases. In addition, by September 15, it was decided to evict the Terrible 365 people (167 previous convictions, 172 disabled, 22 prostitutes, beggars, etc. 32) A rioters got their period of 1 year probation to 10 years in prison. At 91 convicted in the verdict featured article 59-2 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR (the massive mess).
"Debriefing" authorities conducted so quickly. Already at first September of the RSFSR Ministry of Internal Affairs has reported on identified shortcomings in their own system. It turns out that of 202 people operative officers of the police 117 had special training and 83 — even secondary education. Intelligence network was only on paper, and many police officers, including the commanding staff, dressed in civilian clothes odezhku "for fear of a possible beating their bullies." There was not only inadequate training, and indecision, loss of control of the Interior Minister of the Republic, his carelessness, and the underestimation of the threatening situation.
And we mentioned Secretary of the CPSU Ignatov traveling to severe first of September, stating a fact: 26 and 27 August, the Provincial Committee, Town Committee and the Council of Ministers of the Republic not only were paralyzed, but never even tried to seize the initiative and to appeal to the "party activists and workers."
Yet the real political assessment of the events was not given. For two days the city is actually under the power of the crowd (he goes out immediately to 10 thousand people), were captured by the main party and Russian institutions, units of transport and communication enterprises. And at the September plenary session of the Central Committee of the question is actually taken out of the day or agenda, limiting short information at the meeting secretaries of regional and territorial committees of the party. Naturally, all the mainstream media were silent about the incident. The Communists are not very fond of publicly admit their mistakes and even more so the weakness of their own bodies.
First, the material I have already said that to draw conclusions about what is to blame for the action occurred in the severity in August 1958, and if they could take a different turn, I give to our readers. At the moment, each of us has the ability to think, to associate, to evaluate what happened back in '54. A associate, unfortunately, there is something …
The editors thank employees of the municipal archive of Russian social and political history and separately Lena Efimovna Kirillov for help in working on material.