Now Russia about 5.5 million married couples can not have children because of infertility. In the world — that's 20% of couples. How many of them are hesitant to resort to the help of a surrogate mother — such statistics, of course not. Parents reshivshiesya on the move, as well as the surrogate mother, carefully preserved from all the mystery of birth. Typically, a woman has to "represent" the pregnancy, maternity leave issue, etc.
There are no laws governing such a situation, no. The "surrogate motherhood" gives a chance to have a baby for women with a uterus or child bearing them is contraindicated. In these cases, use the egg and sperm infertile couple. The fertilized eggs a woman who, for whatever reason, can not endure pregnancy, are transferred into the body of another woman — a surrogate mother. It is noticed that the embryos take root in another woman's uterus is much better. The probability of pregnancy in this case is 30% or more (some 70%).
The world's first baby from the "surrogate" mother was born in 1989 in the UK. Doctors took a barren woman egg, fertilized outside her body and moved the embryo into the uterus of another woman. Nine months later, unable to bear a child alone woman was able to take the baby in his arms, which was part of her own. In 1995, the program "surrogacy" was introduced in the CIS.
The first such baby was in Kharkov, where my mother gave birth to the child's own daughter with congenital absence of the uterus. In this family, there are no complications, mother, having given birth to the child, quite wisely moved away from a young family, has exchanged the apartment, the baby is developing normally.
At this point in the world born about 1500 children of surrogate mothers (some say up to 250,000). However, this method of furnishing the offspring ratio is far from unambiguous.
Opponents of surrogacy believe that it turns children into a kind of commodity, creating a situation in which the rich people will be able to hire women for carrying their children, they also argue that this motherhood becomes contractual work, so the pursuit of profit may take precedence over concerns for the benefit of the contracting parties.
In addition, many feminists believe that such a practice would facilitate the exploitation of women, and some church groups see it as dehumanizing, immoral tendency that undermines the sanctity of marriage and the family.
There are also concerns that some surrogate mothers may psychologically traumatize the need to give "their" child after the establishment of the connection with it, which was created during the 9-month pregnancy and childbirth (even if at first the woman thought that she would be able to part with such a child without special experiences).
For surrogacy motherhood
Proponents of the use of surrogate mothers indicate that for the family, a childless wife inability to conceive or bear fruit, it is the only way to get a child who is genetically "their" for her husband. They note that such a procedure, allowing produce a desired child, in fact, not so different from adoption. According to them, this is not the commercialization of reproduction, and deeply humane act of love and cooperation. This act is linked, of course, with the potential hazards of the surrogate mother, but she is able to evaluate them and can consciously take the risk. Thus, the decision on the conclusion of the contract are not going for it more risky than for many other women who choose themselves not entirely risk-free activity.
Supporters of surrogacy do not consider it a form of exploitation of women, they claim that a woman who voluntarily chooses to become a surrogate mother receives for this role sufficient financial compensation, as well as moral satisfaction brought by the public good.
But what about the baby?
Baby can inherit from the surrogate mother's genetic defects (in the case of the egg itself, surrogate mother). Some of these defects unfortunately can not be detected by modern methods. It is also possible damage to the fetus as a result of negligence surrogate mother— For example, if it is during pregnancy, drug use, or not enough to eat well.
Equally important, but remain unanswered questions of psychological adaptation of the child. If the child explain (or he accidentally discovers) that his birth is not a mother, and the other woman, it will not be the source of his problems or painful experiences? And if, as a child with this woman will continue after his birth (as happens when a surrogate mother — a relative or a close family people), how it can affect a child in the future?
Despite the existence of conflicting opinions, it can be assumed that the surrogate mother will develop regardless of how this would apply, for example, a church or a grandmother in the yard. Because "their" child even exclusively psychologically always will be some times dearer and nearer than receiving. However, the psychological trauma associated with it several unconventional appearance, is not always completely and for the commissioning parents and the surrogate mother. But, nevertheless, it is impossible to condemn a woman's desire to become a mother. And if this method can make a miracle for someone, it is likely that he has a right to exist.
American studies in recent years have shown that people who decide to give birth to a child with a surrogate mother, usually remain satisfied with their experience.