System for combating terrorism in the United States

System for combating terrorism in the United States
Responsible agencies:

The Council of State Security (National Security Council):
Deputy National Security Adviser in charge of the fight against terrorism (National Director / Deputy National Security Advisor for Combating Terrorism)
Committee on anti-terrorism and state of readiness (Principals Committee on Counter-terrorism and National Preparedness)
National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection and Counterterrorism (National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection and Counter-Terrorism)
Board of Homeland Security (Homeland Security Council)
National Counterterrorism Center (National Counterterrorism Center)
Center to monitor terrorist activity (Terrorist Screening Center (TSC))
Department of Homeland Security (Department of Homeland Security)
The Central Intelligence Agency (Central Intelligence Agency) — Counterterrorism Center (Counterterrorist Center (CTC))
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (Federal Bureau of Investigation) — The Anti-Terrorism (Counterterrorism Division (CTD))
In the army structures:

The combined group interdepartmental coordinating the fight against terrorism (Joint Interagency Coordination Groups (JIACGs))
Inside the Central Command (US Central Command (CENTCOM), — interdepartmental Joint Task Force (Joint Interagency Task Force (JIATF))

Since the early 70-ies of each regular U.S. administration had to deal with the problem of coordinating the efforts of federal agencies to combat terrorism. And every government has decided to issue its own way.

Era of international terrorism has opened a political murder of Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics in 1972. That’s when the government realized that the negotiations with the terrorists, the intelligence services and the efforts from the standpoint of international law are interrelated elements of counterterrorism strategy and require coordination between municipal departments, the Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Defense and the CIA.

The very same counter-terrorism strategy began to take shape, and the original content in the days of Presidents Nixon and Ford, when coordination defected to the government committee chaired by the Secretary of the State Department. As part of this committee began its operations working group dealing, priemuschestvenno, neuvvyazkami aviation security and reforming the visa regime.

At the international level coordination of the fight against terrorism has been undertaken through made in 1971, the Americas (the fight against terrorism directed against diplomats) and Interpol (police cooperation). Yet, while terrorism is not reached the critical level of danger because the problem of coordination of counterterrorism struggle at the governmental level practically engaged.

Main configuration in this matter occurred during the Carter administration. Government Committee on Combating Terrorism was abolished and for coordinating «counterterrorism efforts» both abroad and within the country began to respond to the National Security Council, the State Department and the FBI, respectively.

For the first time as its main municipal value referred to the fight against terrorism, President Reagan. By views of the White House, the terrorists sponsored Russian Union and its satellites, «unleashed a real war not only against the United States, but also against the entire civilized world.» To counter this danger, the U.S. needs to «bring all its diplomatic, economic, legal, military, intelligence (including special operations) and information resources and capabilities.» And for maximum effect merits requires constant and thoughtful coordination of all municipal structures. For this purpose, a special was created inter-ministerial committee dealing with the organization of exchange of information, development of new approaches to the dilemma and the preparation of materials for the SNB.

This structure is preserved in the Bush administration, but has become a meaningless, because the war ended with a cool and the threat of terrorism has lost its urgency and priority. Interdepartmental coordination has been undertaken, priemuschestvenno, through the apparatus of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism at the State Department. (This practice continued until the mid-90s).

In 1995, President Clinton has reassigned major opportunities for coordination of counter-terrorism efforts of the State Security Council. Was formed so called «Coordination Group assistants», transformed later in the «Group of security against terrorist threats» (Counterterrorism Security Group). It included representatives of the State Department, the Office of the Minister of Defence, General Staff, the Ministry of Justice, the FBI and the CIA at the Deputy Assistant or first person.

Inside the SNB over time «crystallized» separate management, is responsible for coordinating counterterrorism efforts, protection of critical infrastructure and principled fight against drug trafficking. Head of the office, received the status of «National Coordinator for counter-terrorism, security and infrastructure protection» (National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection and Counter-Terrorism) received the right rassredotachivaniya budget allocation for counter-terrorism activities.

Taking whitewashed house, President Bush made a reorganization «Group security against terrorist threats» in the «Committee on anti-terror and state of readiness» QM in the Council of State bezopasnosti.

Reform after the September 11 attacks

September 11 disaster forced the whitewashed house do «Homeland Security Council» (Homeland Security Council (HSC)), a new body to «encourage and support the President in the development strategy of internal security» and «become inventory coordination of all executive agencies, producing and implementing security policies within the country.» The administration appeared brand new position — Assistant President for Homeland Security. At the same time, the NSC continues to be responsible for coordinating efforts to combat terrorism abroad. His unit was created position of deputy national security advisor, responsible for the fight against terrorism (National Director / Deputy National Security Advisor for Combating Terrorism). He is in constant contact with the assistant pre6zidenta for State and Homeland Security. As a result, all internal and external efforts to combat terrorism coordinated by appropriate committees within NSC and HSC.

Once the new coordinating structures have taken their place in the executive branch was created Department of Homeland Security (Department of Homeland Security — DHS), designed to «connect under one roof» a huge part of agencies and departments responsible for internal security (including the Office for the Protection of borders and transport department and emergency preparedness and public protection agency critical infrastructure concept). The main task of the new ministry is warning and prevention of «terrorist attacks» inside the United States, reducing the country’s vulnerability to terrorism, minimize damage and help in the aftermath of terrorist attacks in the U.S. countryside. At the same time for the investigation of terrorist acts as well as law enforcement agencies are responsible before the respective levels (federal, state, city).

To coordinate actions of the army headquarters in the structure of different levels were made so called «combined group Interagency coordination to fight terrorism,» not counting AFB (CENTCOM), where the respective unit called «Joint interdepartmental task force.» Mission of all these «groups» is effective interdepartmental coordination and exchange of information between civilians and military structures in their own «area of ​​responsibility».

In addition, in 2003, was created «Center to counter terrorist threats» (Terrorist Threat Integration Center — TTIC), responsible for the integration and analysis of the entire disk imaging on terrorism within the country as well as abroad. It included representatives of the Department of Homeland Security, Department of Anti-terror FBI center to combat terrorism CIA and Department of Defense. It was determined that the director of the Center (the post was appointed John Brennan) obeys the CIA director, the center itself is located at the headquarters of the CIA.

In April 2003, the Centre has published a very optimistic report Patterns of Global Terrorism, judging by which proclaimed President Bush’s war on terror has borne fruit, and the number of terrorist attacks around the world had fallen to their lowest level since 1982 — about 190 terrorist attacks, in which only 307 people were killed. After more than a year after the publication of the report, the then Secretary of State Colin Powell said that maybe in the document «error crept techno.» Later it became clear that the drafters of the report for some paranormal reasons not considered in the general difficulties 31 terrorist attack, including bombings a week in Istanbul and Riyadh, in addition, the number of those killed in terrorist attacks, in fact, not reached 307, and 625 people — the highest rate since 1969. John Brennan, managing TTIC, acknowledged the «incorrect» and took full responsibility, but said that «anyone who believes that these were specially rigged, seriously wrong.»

In September 2003, was made a regular coordination center — tracking terrorist activity (Terrorist Screening Center (TSC)). Its creation was announced Attorney General, Secretary of Homeland Security, Secretary of State, Director of the FBI and CIA director. Center had to connect all the lists of wanted terrorists in a single database. TSC comes to the structure of the FBI. In June 2005, the Centre has been strongly criticized for bad management of computer systems. Namely, it was found that up to August 2004 there was no head manager disk imaging, whereas particularly in this period were important decisions that determined the work of computer systems center.

In August 2004, President Bush in response to tips 9/11 Commission signed a decree according to which the State should be created Counterterrorism Center — National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), now the Office of the Director of the slave state intelligence. December 6, 2004 The Center was created, and simply changed a TTIC, whose director, John Brennan became the first manage NCTC. June 10, 2005, President Bush visited the NCTC, and announced a new mission center director Vice Admiral John Redd (John Redd) on the advice of John Negroponte.

CIA: Reforms under Bush
As a result of the commission of 9/11 the CIA began the most sweeping changes to a day or its foundation. In July 2004, was created brand new structure, coordinates the activities of the CIA and other intelligence agencies — Managing Director of the State Intelligence Agency (the position of Director John Negroponte was appointed). In August 2004, he was appointed as the new director of the CIA — Porter Goss, who began the reform agencies (see Reform Porter Goss: CIA agents on changes technique).

By the summer of 2005 formed a brand new strategy for the CIA in combating terrorism: control over the operations of the FBI and the Pentagon, the introduction of private airlines bullpen outside the United States, the right to eliminate, the new rules of recruitment.

In October 2005, adopted a strategy of state of U.S. intelligence, according to which the CIA was assigned additional tasks, including support for democratic change in other countries. Was immediately reformed the most fundamental podrazdenie CIA — Operational Directorate, responsible for human intelligence. At its base was formed State Hidden Service (NCS).

CIA: Reforms under Obama
In late February 2009, the Committee on Intelligence of the Senate of the United States announced that it would investigate applets detention and interrogation of terrorism suspects, which used the CIA under President Bush. The purpose of the investigation — reveal new facts concerning the implementation of the applets, including conditions of detention in secret CIA bullpen and interrogation methods that were used to obtain information from suspects in the activities of «Al Qaeda.» Details: What Obama has prepared for the CIA.

March 14, 2009 The Obama administration has revised the legal status of suspected terrorists contained, namely, in the bullpen Guantanamo. According to the decision of the U.S. administration, now against prisoners would not apply the term «enemy combatant» has been extensively used during the tenure of George W. Bush. Now, in accordance with the decision of Obama at the premises of an alleged terrorist in jail will be met standards set by international military law. In addition, according to the prescription in Guantanamo jail will only include those who have provided «substantial» support for terrorist movements «Al-Qaeda» and «Taliban.» Earlier in the special prison at Guantanamo Bay could be oriented at least some people suspected of links to terrorism.

April 10, 2009 CIA Director Leon Panetta said the United States finished use the network of hidden prisons located in other countries. The remaining sites where previously contained terrorist suspects will be decommissioned. Details: The prisoners in the war on terror / after Guantanamo.

April 1, 2009 a report was published by criticizing the work of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (Office of the Director of National Intelligence — ODNI) for the bureaucracy, clumsy financial management and the inability to put an end to squabbling inside the U.S. intelligence community. Details: Ruler of intelligence is not done the job.
After those found in the activities of U.S. intelligence abuses and violations, in 1970 Congress passed legislation (FISA), in accordance with which it established a special tribunal dealing with outdoor exploration and giving permission to conduct searches and vneglasnoe install listening devices «in the interests of national U.S. security. » During the war, this cool legislative Act (FISA) worked in the main against the people who would be involved in spying for foreign countries and, by virtue of rather limited scope of implementation, not lured to discover the huge public attention. In the criteria of the «war on terror», the scope and implementation of the mandate of the FISA greatly enhanced, including through the adoption of the Patriot Act (November 2001).

Usually requests for searches and vneglasnoe installation of listening devices come from agents FB to own management. Then they considered the joint commission, which includes representatives of the FBI and the Department Justice, and in some sorts of cases involving espionage and terrorism, and bureaucrats of the CIA and the NSC.

Intelligence gathering outside the U.S.

In June 2004, the United States, Britain and Australia have announced a global counterterrorist network. Network task — to prevent action «Al-Qaeda» and her allied groups throughout the area of ​​the globe. First assume that the network will include three centers — South American Terrorist Threat Integration Center (in December 2004 it changed the State Counterterrorism Center — National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), English The Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre (created in June of 2003) and the Australian National Threat Assessment Centre (created in October 2003).

But soon, the network was expanded to New Zealand and Canadian parts: in October 2004 in Canada was created The Integrated Threat Assessment Centre (ITAC), and in December 2004 of New Zealand appeared The Combined Threat Assessment Group (CTAG). So Makarov, was created a structure that one hundred percent of the global system of repeated radio intercept ECHELON. Recall that during the second world war was a close cooperation between the intelligence services of five Anglo-Saxon countries — the U.S., Britain, of New Zealand, Australia and Canada.

November 18, 2005 Washington Post published an article about Dana Priest that the CIA has a separate network joint intelligence centers in the 2-dozen states, public security officials the U.S. and other countries, together working to find suspected terrorists. The newspaper claims that these centers are located in Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Officially, these centers are called «Counter-terrorism intelligence centers» (Counterterrorist Intelligence Centers — CTICs). Newspaper let slip that centers CTIC — it’s not hidden bullpen CIA who operate in eight countries. With all this newspaper claims that centers CTIC yavlyatsya «part of the fundamental, ongoing configuration CIA mission, which began soon after the attacks of September 11, 2001» and animated by the former director George Tenet. The newspaper writes that in closed hearings in Congress, representatives of the CIA stated that the combined intelligence center became the greatest success of the agency in the fight against terrorism after September 11.

Meanwhile, in July 2005, available information about one of these centers, located in Paris. Then the same newspaper claimed that in the French capital since 2002, operates a hidden intelligence center codenamed «Base Union» (Alliance Base), established with the CIA and its French counterpart — the Directorate General of the outer security (DGSE). The Centre is headed by general French secret services, but its activities are financed, priemuschestvenno, CIA counter-terrorism department. Base is a unique cooperation project intelligence, as employees of the center not only communicate with their employees, and together plan secret operations. Not counting the French and the Yankees on «Baze Union» also operate special services officers from England, Germany, Canada and Australia. The objective of this project is to monitor worldwide movement of terrorist suspects, and developing operations on their capture.
Task of improving information exchange system was set by Congress in 1016 of the Act «On the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act» (IRTPA) of 2004. In August 2004, the President issued a decree number 13356, designed to ensure that information related to terrorism, was included in the exchange of information between federal agencies (both at the federal and local level), also the personal sector. April 15, 2005, President John proclaimed Rassaka program manager of the information exchange. June 2 President stipulated that control applets comes in the Office of the Director of State Intelligence.

June 15 Rassak presented the initial report to the president and Congress. The report was delivered five major tasks in the field of information exchange, which will determine the activities of the department for the coming two years. October 25, the president signed a decree number 13388 on the development of the Council on information exchange. October 27 State Intelligence Director John Negroponte sent letters to the heads of departments and agencies to bring their own representatives to the Board. August 18, 2005 Rassak sent requests for information to the industrial sector to provide service electrical service. From potential developers were received 48 responses, and they are now being analyzed. This will allow to construct the technical project. Defense research institute since July 2005 under a contract with the Department Rassaka A comprehensive review of existing information exchange. The report, to be submitted in December 2005, will serve as the main starting Fri to implement systems.
In the United States, followed by areas of responsibility are distributed way — the local police responsible for resolving the crisis in local criminal incidents (hostage while robbing banks, etc.). For allowing terrorist crises meets the FBI Hostage Rescue Team (FBI HRT), HRT boss becomes managing operational headquarters. So Makar, the federal government is always responsible for the terrorist attacks.

Counterterrorism legislation

Immediately after September 11, at the end of October 2001 with the filing of the Congress of the White House adopted the amendments to the law, has been called the «Patriot Act». This document is intended to assist law enforcement agencies to prevent terrorist attacks perfectly. Act increment opportunities FBI and other intelligence agencies who have qualified listen to telephone conversations, look for electrical correspondence, seek at libraries and bookstores data ordered or purchased by visitors books. Vpribavok was introduced responsible for harboring terrorists.

In the initial project was an act and more than design innovations. Proposed to oblige schools to provide special services to private affairs of students and allow indefinite detention of foreigners suspected of having links with terrorists. But despite the fact that Congress has not supported these ideas of the Bush administration, the «Patriot Act» caused a public outcry. Defenders of liberal freedoms believed that this law establishes the regime in America, «the police of the country» and contrary to democratic norms. But even for special services such trimmed law — a very big hindrance. So, in order to avoid red tape and legal struggle with lawyers, the Afghan Taliban prisoners hitherto contained on extraterritorial U.S. base at Guantanamo Bay, where South American laws have no force.

December 15, 2005 U.S. House of Representatives by a majority vote approved the extension of the act «Patriot Act» (His term ends in December 2005). In July, the House of Representatives voted to extend the action of 2-16 of the law of 10 years, and the other provisions recognize unchanged. But in September, the Senate did not approve the proposal and returned the bill for revision. Middle of November, reportedly members of both houses of Congress have gained agreement on the revision and extension of the act «Patriot Act.» Namely, lawmakers agreed to extend the controversial Article 10 does not, and for 7 years. In addition, Congress decided not to provide special services may use as evidence documents seized from suspects without proper court approval. Of the bill were also excluded proposed by the House of Representatives articles that empower court death sentence for terrorists.

In August 2007, President Bush put his signature on Sunday adopted a law that significantly expands the rights of the country to audition for international telephone calls and letters show electrical American people without a court order. With all of this flea on first glance configuration in legal wording fundamentally change the legal restrictions on the ability of countries to spy on millions of phone calls and email messages by electric — as originating from the territory of the United States and «belonging.»

The law for the first time makes the legal basis for a large part of the activities for surveillance without a court order, which carried vsekrete Ministry of Public Security (DHS) is a framework law on surveillance of foreigners from 1978 (this law is meant to regulate the rights of the country should listen to personal discussions of the American people).

Before the Act, if the municipal authorities want to listen to telephone conversations, also acquainted with the correspondence to electric mail and other means of communication between personal entities in the United States and persons abroad, they needed a search warrant authorized by a special tribunal on the surveillance of foreigners — it is in this case, if the government produced spying on U.S. terrain.

Today, most international phone calls in the U.S. and from the U.S. passes through optical fiber cables, and the most effective way to listen to them by the authorities — is a huge connection to telecommunication sites in the United States.

In a brand new law changed the legal definition of «electric surveillance.» This allows the authorities to listen to such a debate without a court order, connecting to the aforementioned huge nodes unless the object of surveillance authorities «on the basis of solid evidence» considered to be abroad.

For example, if a person in Indianapolis calls someone in London, the Ministry of State Security can listen to the conversation without a warrant, unless the object of surveillance is MNS man in London. Press Secretary of the White House, Tony Fratto said Sunday in an interview that the new law is not confined to attend to a hiccup with telephone conversations between strangers and a potentially allows authorities to eavesdrop on calls abroad Yankees.

The rush of the White House partly explained by the fact that in today’s special tribunal was spying on a verdict (the text is still not declassified), which says: listen to international telephone calls through the South American telecommunications hubs authorities should receive a warrant authorized by the tribunal. The new law, make a temporary measure (the term of his act comes after 6 months), also marks the displacement of the «center of power» in the organization and regulation of surveillance carried out by the municipal authorities.

The new law gives the possibilities to sanction international surveillance is not a special tribunal on surveillance, and the U.S. Attorney General and the Director of the CIA. The sole function of the court will be the review and approval procedures used by the authorities under surveillance after these measures have already been implemented. The Tribunal will not be the case in detail to teach a person who is watching.

The law also expanded the rights of administration forced telecom companies to promote a similar espionage. From this point on such companies can bind to cooperate in order of the Attorney General and the Director of the CIA. Assistants congressional Democrats on Sunday said that some telecom executives expressed their dissatisfaction favorites Congress this article of the law and, perhaps, it will stipulate in court. According to aides, telecommunications companies notified lawmakers that they would prefer sanctioned tribunal order requiring them to provide assistance.


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