The geostrategic position RF in the aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union and allowed the inspired leadership of the country to make the future development of the country by the revival of the power and the merits of the goal to become one of the leading powers of a multipolar world, surely overcoming the resistance of conventional and newly minted rivals and finding reliable and numerous allies. How to succeed Our homeland in solving the pressing problems of the first decade?
In one of the articles of the election, Vladimir Putin wrote: "Russia is now on the main characteristics of the economic and social development emerged from the deepest recession … We ensure high performance levels and overcome life's most prosperous years of the USSR "(V. Putin," Russia is concentrated — the challenges to which we must respond ").
The results of the first decade
This conclusion bodrenky one hand, pleasant but the other — which means that more than 20 years history of our practically lost. Over the decades, the rest of the world has gone far ahead, but we are happy that we managed to get back to the level at which to start falling. What is there more — joy or sorrow. And what they say on that score statistics and other authorities? A look at Table 1 and 2.
As we see, the available capacity was not implemented well. Particularly depressing features that characterize the most important asset — and the state of conservation of the population lives, is negligible GDP growth and archaic as before raw structure of the economy, which slows down its development and the ability to provide resistance to the growing threats to the security of the country and every citizen.
Of course, were very heavy losses of the last decade of the last century related to unfair privatization of public facilities and bestalantnoy to crime conversion of military production, have caused great harm in all spheres of society. And the tribute of activity and creativity were not, especially by those in whose hands the wealth of the country was shattered. The call of the President of the Russian Federation to double GDP in 10 years they reacted sluggishly, preferring not to invest in the real economy, and are exported outside their income. At the same time, the Ministry of money took this call skeptical, laying in the forecasts least the highest GDP growth rates and diligently deriving huge profits from the export of raw materials into the Stabilisation and came to replace him funds. Real GDP growth is often superior to the predictable basting. By the end of the period, he slowed down, which contributed, in-1's, leading away from the economy in a "safety cushion", stored abroad, it is very significant sums of-2, the world's economic crisis.
"We need technology. Hope that we pulled out oil and gas, nekompitentno — said the rector of Money Institute of the Russian Government Mikhail Eskindarov. — A remedy that does not work, do not benefit. " In 2008, the state budget expenditures amounted to 7.57 trillion rubles, while in the Reserve Fund and the Fund for Public Welfare lay idly 7.6 trillion rubles. If they worked in the Russian economy, its real sectors, the president proposed a doubling of GDP would have been achieved earlier, and investing in the real economy instead of "safety cushion" would render the second to double. But did not leave any second doubling or re-industrialization, and the crisis has hit our economy even deeper than the economy of the United States and Europe.
Note that the situation has not changed: the discussion in the State Duma of the state budget for 2013 the opposition parties noted the desire to understate the real income of the Ministry of Finance, to show the lack of artificial and acquired additional funds from oil and gas to put in the reserve fund, rather than investment, social spending , national defense and national safety.
Find the economic model
10 years ago, assessing the country's geopolitical situation, generalizing the characteristics cited economic, military and economic might of the Russian Federation and the huge state of the world. Their analysis reads that Russia only in terms of economic potential surpasses Germany, France, Great Britain, Japan, and the largest area as the characteristics of China and the United States. But the degree of realization of the economic potential of our country was significantly lower than that of the states, because for general indicator of economic strength Our homeland was weaker countries in the table. Intra-performance military and economic security of our country, too, were disappointing, and the system for the structures of the military counter threats to national security due to the latest limited economic capacity of the country are inadequate military and economic needs of the forces opposed to the actual and potential military threats.
Yet if we thought that the Russian Federation has even fallen, but still enormous economic potential. The revival of its power and the return of one of the more developed and powerful nations of the world can be had, but only in full support of the head of the lessons of history — the consolidation of society around the basic values and goals of public confrontation internal and external threats faced by our government. In particular, to highlight the urgency of the tasks now because of danger of national security has increased significantly, but noticeable shift in the balance of power in favor of the Russian Federation did not.
At the moment, our homeland concentrated to adequately respond to the anticipated challenges faced by the whole world, a systemic crisis, a tectonic process of global transformation — the transition to the latest cultural, economic, technological, geopolitical era. While we were trying to get away from socialism and become "like everybody else", these "all" came all thoroughly convinced that capitalism has exhausted itself. It is unrealistic to list all the obstacles and puzzles, we call those of them who have obviously determined.
In general, the need to "complete the establishment in Russia such a political system, the social structure of such guarantees and the protection of people, such an economic model, which together make up a single, live, constantly evolving and immediately measured and steady, healthy municipal body" (Vladimir Putin . "Russia is concentrated — the challenges to which we must respond"). Such a system guarantees the sovereignty of the Russian Federation and the welfare of its people. Vladimir Putin also mentions the words of justice, dignity, truth and trust. And what is he "so" the body itself?
Let us touch on some of the parties specifying only one of the name-giving problems — economic model.
In 1-x, you need to get off the raw needle and go to the innovative development of industry, agriculture and other sectors of the real economy. Without this worthless talk about the solution of problems of the economy and other spheres of life. And then the main difficulty is that in the economy we are building, not command. Other methods are required. Private traders to intrigue, and municipal officials to pick politically and economically literate, artistically competent, creative and disciplined.
In-2, you need to remove the damage and the possibility of matching businesses with the bureaucracy, fight corruption at the root (once it is recognized treason), but with all this without pushing the government out of the economy under the pretext of
Tipo inefficiencies and driving out the ignorant from the municipal system, replacing them with honest, economically literate people, only then economy be smart, efficient. You need a great creative work of lawyers and legislators in the improvement of the economic rights and tremendous organizational work.
B-3, as the air in the country to achieve social cohesion. He was not achieved without configuration at times decile coefficient which RF is 1:15 on a whole, while in Moscow 1:50, while in European countries 1:7. Such a gap is already threatening stupid and mercilessly insurgency. Not achieve social unity and without progressive tax scale, without a decent compensatory payment from dealers unfair privatization and re-nationalization of the part of the accessories, the nature of which, as experience has shown, asks her withdrawal from the personal arms, even without the elimination of offshore companies. Exemptions and requires a lot of innovation, but on the whole it is necessary tough political will, not bodren'kiye electoral appeals and promises.
Reflecting on the searched model of the economy, particularly in terms of defense, suddenly came upon just passed a federal law "On the Fund promising research." We read: "The Fund has the right to produce income-generating activities only insofar as it serves the purpose for which it was created and meets this goal." Read more: "The federal bodies of state power has no right to interfere in the activities of the fund and its officials." I think that this law would have been very suitable for the whole economy, it is focused on neutralizing the main defect of the market economy, orienting its subjects not on the multi-effect (outcome), and at a profit. On the other hand, litsezreem zeal to remove bureaucratic obstacles created by the actions of government agencies often ignorant.
I am convinced that in a very controversial socially oriented market economy is very fundamentally not a monkey or a capitalist konkurentnst or under the planned socialism, and in all to create and observe a measure that defines the transition phenomena in a new quality, even into its opposite.
Look ahead 30-50 years
On the issue of restructuring and modernization of the economy, we often simplistic understanding the relationship of the economy and national security, including national defense, repeating experienced expression authorities distant past that the money — the arteries of the war, that war requires three things — money, money and means again. But since that time, when so stated, there have been great configuration in economy and military affairs.
Military construction of the twentieth century has shown that with the industrialization of the economy means it is very difficult to transform the military power that the decisive role get questions of economic structure, premature economic mobilization and conversion processes mutual transitions in economic and military power as part of the system of power. Russian Alliance clearly showed these processes recently majestically Russian war and the conversion of military production 90s. Chains and impartial multi-temporal relationships industries intend to these processes, and from awareness and consideration of these relations in the military-economic policies depend on an enormous success and shameful defeat, the ability to "cut corners" and fail in another SAP.
Ignoring these relationships during the conversion of military production made the inevitable high-spirited and so profound collapse of not only the defense industry and the entire economy of in the 90s. The same reason is very weak, unbalanced process of reviving the economy in the first decade of the XXI century. In this puzzle disruptions of neo-liberal economic policies of the military-Russia.
Military power in modern conditions such means of arms and military equipment, the creation of which can be turned on unless the structure of the real economy the most modern manufacturing industries that use the highest technology. We hasten to attend neuvvyazkami post-industrial economy, and in fact sunk to pre-industrial, losing mechanical engineering, electrical industry, the highest technology and highly qualified scientific personnel. This is similar to other communication structures for national security, the economy and its structure. This connection can not be overlooked, speaking of a "smart" defense and security against new threats and the need to look beyond the horizon of 30-50 years ahead, allocating programs from development and modernization of the Armed Forces of the UIC 23 trillion rubles, but reconciled with the dominance of commodity-oriented economic policy and the brain drain and capital limit.
What are the characteristics relating to the national defense and national security in the past decade, and in the future? On this issue shed light data in Table 3.
As we see, the cost of national defense in the first decade of this century is not podymali above 2.84 percent of GDP and 18.63 percent of the costs of the state budget and tended to decrease, while spending on national security respectively — 2.41 and 11.1 per cent . Characteristics of the first years of the new decade not a sign of growth.
Financial speculation — is trading financial assets with a view to profit as a result of the adoption of market risk. This was one of the main forms of financial activities along with investing, hedging, insurance, etc. So as for investment and speculation in money growth is achieved, then there is a clouding of the thinking and the degeneracy of monetary policy.
What is the underfunding of defense? This may be a forced measure, a consequence of the latter limited resources. But it can be a method used to enrich corrupt officials under the guise of service in defense spending. In such a situation, the military financiers have to borrow from private banks at fantastic interest. Calculated for their government, enriching the oligarchs and corrupt officials. The way had to fight fiscal fraud in the field of underfunding of defense spending in the 90 years of the last century, impressively illustrated in the book of the former chief of the Head PMT Defense Colonel-General Vladimir Vorobyov (Vorobyov VV "Financial and economic support for defense Russian Security: prepyadstviya and solutions. "St. Petersburg, 2003).
It is especially important to be aware of the criteria for transition to a socially oriented market economy with pluralism forms of ownership. So as it happens, you need to acquire the knowledge and ability to work in the criteria of the market, without losing the enormous capabilities planned regulation of economic processes. Almost a decade of existence in the criteria of underfunding defense and crushing in the interest of the privatization of its companies, the loss of many of the things that you need to ensure it is adequate to the threat and secure the competitiveness, and also identified the failure of the first 3 municipal weapons programs in the past decade. This leads to rethink the relation to the financial and economic technologies to realize their enormous destructive as well as creative force and skillfully use it to build up.
It is a question about the role of the military component of the financial system in determining the causes and how to prevent its separation from the military, economic, and military-economic policies, how to implement their multi-purpose. The important thing is to achieve adequate military and financial, military and economic interests, avoid exaggerated the impact of bureaucratic and personal interests. It is necessary to combine multi-purpose and economic interests in the contracts subjects of military and economic relations by developing a business law rules applicable to the parties, and establishing acceptable for their enforcem
ent mechanism in the form of economic sanctions, norms of legal responsibility by introducing new forms of economic relations, institutional innovation, modern marketing techniques.
One of the more active ways and means to the goal — the creation of, and in fact the revival of the destroyed privatization and conversion of military production of large structures built in the defense industry.