The experimental instrument Simon SG

In the middle of the creators of Russian small guns Gavrilovic Sergei Simonov (1894-1986) is deservedly considered one of the patriarchs, His life was normal for professional nuggets that came to the Soviet defense industry in the 20's and 30's. Born in a family farm, graduated three classes of rural schools, 1b years became an apprentice blacksmith, and later the factory as a mechanic, and in 1917 began working adjuster automatic system V.G.Fedorova the Kovrov machine-gun factory, where he soon was appointed master. In 1922, Sergei Gavrilovic already started making a light machine gun and rifle its design. 7 years later he became the head of the assembly shop of the plant, then the pilot workshops in 1932-1933. completes the formation of the Industrial Academy, and after 3 years on arms take his automatic rifle.

After that Simonov design bureau headed by the enterprises of the defense industry and only in 1959 he retired. Yes, and then did not finish the deal with new standards of guns. Evidence of the highest evaluation of its Awards — the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, and twice — the winner of the Stalin Prize, awarded several medals and eight medals. During the long years of creative activity designed Simonov fifteen hundreds of different systems, but for some reasons known only got three: automatic rifle AVS-36 anti-tank gun PTSD and SKS carbine, which have become an instrument of government-issue of our army.

And what about other designs? What were they? Let's try to answer this question, the more so as seasoned standards have not gone without any trace, as so often, and are stored in the Central Armed Forces Museum in Moscow. A lot of what he contributed to Simonov, bequeathed his instrument museum and an experienced in 1960-1981 gg. handed here 155 "trunks". For small exception, it's automatic systems, among which an important place is occupied sub-machine guns and assault rifles.

Own first submachine gun Sergei Gavrilovic was developed in 1945-1946 appeared during the second world war in the design of such tools were made every possible improvement. Yet Simonov found a new, unique solutions in the design of individual components and parts, so that the original version of the PPP-6P standard in 1946 had undeniable advantages over consisted armed with pistols, machine guns and Shpagin Sudaev. Automation has remained a classic for its similar systems, and is based on the impact of free blow, but the moving parts have been even better protected from contamination. Namely, the bolt and receiver box cover for dust and water thin-stamped cover that with the shooting remained motionless. On all standard sub-machine guns cartridge cases were thrown up and away through the window in the receiver and prevented the arrow sign off target, Simonov sent extraction sleeves down, PPP-6P standard 1946 was unchanged at sight 200 m, consisting of front and rear sights, box type carbine, ammunition served 7.62-mm pistol cartridges benchmark 1930

Submachine gun PPS-6P arr. 1946.
Caliber — 7.62 mm
total length — 798 mm
unloaded weight — 3.27 kg
rate — 700 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity — 35 rounds

In 1949, the designer reworked the gun under the 9-mm pistol cartridges PM and reduced its size by applying a sliding iron butt. Got a brand new standard PPP-8P '49. In the same year, on the instructions of the NKVD Simonov started working on the first small-sized Russian submachine gun. Taking the base of PPP-8P, for reducing the size of the upcoming rollout gate he used on the barrel during firing. (Only in 1954, a similar decision was embodied in the Israeli "Uzi", so that its creator Uziel Gal was far not the first.) Feature of the new weapon was a small rate of fire, which was achieved by a relatively large mass of moving parts, a longish course of automation and rolled out the gate. The firing mechanism was the traditional type — udarnikovy, sight — the chaise calculated by taking carefully aimed shots at distances of 50 and 100 m, the fuse fixed the bolt in the cocked position. Submachine gun out small, with a length of 600 mm unfolded shoulder rest and 380 mm with folded, weighed the same unloaded 1.88 kg.

PPP-10P arr. 1950. made in 1950, but unfortunately the whole test cycle, he could not resist. In addition, due to the lack of muzzle brake-compensator accuracy of fire was low, and the strength of certain parts — inadequate. It took two decades to assess the development of Simon — only in 1970 in the Soviet Union resumed the design of compact submachine guns. In this case, history repeated itself: the standards of the N.M.Afanasevym E.F.Dragunovym and did not satisfy the military's sighting range. It was only in 1993 began mass creation is very similar to the PPP-10P "Cedar".

Submachine gun PPS-10P arr. 1950.
Caliber — 9 mm
total length — 600 mm
length with folded butt — 380 mm
unloaded weight — 1.88 kg
rate — 700 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity — 30 rounds.

Sergei Gavrilovic parallel machines involved — as shown by combat experience the second world war, more successful and promising small arms and light weapon. Own AC-13E arr. In 1949 he designed in 1948 for the automation used energy of powder gases, partly discharged through a side opening in the barrel to lock the cartridge — excellent exhaust creator warp gate to slow the rate of fire — very long stroke of the piston. To reduce the length of the receiver, the designer placed the back-and mainspring in the butt. Of AC-18P arr. In 1948, it was possible to shoot bursts and single shots. There was a safety that locks the trigger. A significant number of parts produced sverhtehnologichnym way cool stamping. The gun came out although fully applicable for the operation, but of overweight — unloaded it weighed 4.31 kg. Simonov tried to lighten it, abandoning the dust cover windows receiver by altering the handle reloading, changing the guard and interpreter modes of fire. The new AC-18P arr. 1949 "lost" on the pound and become more comfortable.

Automatic AC-18P arr. 1949.
Caliber — 7.62 mm
total length — 860 mm
weight unloaded and store — 3.8 kg
Magazine capacity — 30 rounds

At the same time, another principle gunsmith tested actuating movable parts. Back in 1948, he made the AC-19P with delayed (self-opening) gate slows down due to friction control and slow extraction cartridges. The rest of the design is very reminiscent of the AC-13E and AC-18P.

Automatic AC-19P arr. 1948.
Caliber — 7.62 mm
total length — 852 mm
weight unloaded and store — 3.2 kg
Magazine capacity — 30 rounds.

The latest in a series of machines of 1948-1949. became the AC-21E arr. 1949, structurally similar to the AC-18P. It features the stock did receiver riveted of thin corrugated iron sheets. Folding sights, reminding all machines Simonov German parachutist unit FG-42 rifles, were more successful retractable rear sight. To-hand combat was intended bayonet. At the request of the customer, paying attention to the convenience of guns in the appeal,
Sergey Gavrilovic all the accessories for cleaning situated in the pistol grip.

In 1949 has been adopted AK-47 design of MT Kalashnikov, but the improvement lasted for similar systems. In addition, operation of the "Kalashnikov" in the military has identified a number of shortcomings. As long as the creator sought to remove them, the other gun makers engaged in the creation of new models. They were joined, and Simon has accumulated considerable experience in the design of machines. In 1955-1956,. he suggested 6 models. Their work was based on the automatic disqualification of the powder gases through a hole in the trunk — scheme, recognized good. Locking the rounds on all models produces a warp gate, as has been universally recognized SKS carbine. In this experimental series Simonov completely abandoned the sights with folding front sight and a fully retractable by going to the classics — sector sight with a cylindrical front sight, protected by an iron ring namushnike. Its AC-AC-95P and 96P arr. In 1955, came out very lightweight. This was achieved by reducing the receiver and wood parts. Unique in both constructs were gas piston adapted for stepwise reducing the speed of moving parts, and the trigger unit is removable. The tests revealed the pros and cons of new products, so that the hardness and strength of the individual parts was insufficient, and the returns, because of the low weight — excess. At the same time, the simplicity of the device noted experts at the machine and its unification with the SCS.

Automatic AC-95P arr. 1955.
Caliber — 7.62 mm
total length — 890 mm
length with folded butt — 700 mm
weight unloaded and store — 2.59 kg (96P — 2,85 kg)
Magazine capacity — 30 rounds

More successful were the AC-106P arr. 1955 and AS-107P arr. 1956. Their trigger mechanism was Kurkov. For power discharge the receiver cover and slowing the rate of fire Simonov applied very long stroke piston and arranged revertible mechanism before the bolt in the receiver, fixing by turning the sector stops springs, located on the piston rod. Fixing frame with revertible mechanism implemented detachable handle. Plunger tube was attached to the gas chamber linchpin. To reduce the size of guns in the stowed position one of the machines was equipped with a sliding iron butt.

Automatic AC-106P arr. 1955.
Caliber — 7.62 mm
total length — 890 mm
unloaded weight — 3.5 kg
Magazine capacity — 30 rounds

In 1962, Simon began for a new "automatic rifle period." Then just found out that such a model was the gun — "Kalashnikov", the development of its manufacture has been debugged "one hundred" and crush it even more perfect for the release of the model considered unwise. Because Simon's experienced product series AO-31 looked like an AK-47 and AKM, all had similar butterfly valves and fuses, intended only to prevent accidental firing, and the configuration modes of fire serves as a warning flag-interpreters, located near the trigger. Yet machines Simon had a number of relevant features, do not let confusion with other systems. So automatic AO-31 with serial number 3, made and tested in 1962, had to muzzle the gas chamber immediately served as a brake compensator, front sight and flash suppressor body. For extension of the sighting strip, the sight mounted on the lid of the receiver. But the tangible advantages over the "Kalashnikov" SC-31 did not show, and performance characteristics and reliability were even lower, if at the AK series.

Naturally, Sergey Gavrilovic was upset by this, but did not lower his hands. He was characteristic finding in almost all new empirical method, not one time tinkering and improving parts and assemblies. So he enrolled at this time. Featured in the 1964 SA-31-6 regained everyday gas chamber and piston with a longish stroke, the bolt had improved device with a roller on a ledge leading to reduce friction when unlocking. The installation of the sight on the lid of the receiver Simonov considered unsustainable and returned it to the ring forearm. Automatic SA-31-6 was the butt of a tree, folding in the stowed position and fastened to the right side of the receiver. This allowed us to use the gun in all military branches. After only two years, the 10-ka similar butt found at the place of Kalashnikov AK-74M.

Automatic SA-31-6
Caliber — 7.62 mm
total length — 895 mm
length with folded butt — 660 mm
weight unloaded and store — 2.51 kg
Magazine capacity — 30 rounds.

In the 60 years Simonov one of the first in the country to experiment with new promising varieties of ammunition: 5.45 mm maloimpulsnym and 7 b2-mm caseless ammunition. In 1963, the designer offered to small-bore machine AO-31-5. In addition to the trunk, he was no different from the other samples in the series. Although testing at the site confirmed the viability of such a weapon, it took another 10 years before it was confirmed in the Russian army.

Automatic AO-31-5
Caliber — 5.45 mm
total length — 910 mm
unloaded weight — 2.57 kg
Magazine capacity — 30 rounds

Forgotten was the most experienced caseless AO-31-7 release in 1965. At the technical level, it was designed as a whole lot of stock, but did not have a kicker and a reflector. It tested the possibility of firing ammunition in which the powder charge was pressed with a primer. Automatic AO-31-7 was not designed to fire single shots, was accessed from the main gun ammunition and extraordinary work in automatic mode, but this was prevented by apparent "raw" ammo. It's a pity of course, because the caseless ammunition promised considerable benefits. For example, because the least weight and dimensions could be placed in a larger store ammunition. Again, the priority: Simonov automatic for 30 years anticipated the emergence of similar instruments in other countries, notably in Germany.

In recent years, Sergei Gavrilovic continued to work on small-caliber machine guns under the 5.45-mm cartridge. Namely, in 1975, made the K-042 and K-043, are small in size and weight. To activate the automation designer has used traditional tools for such removal of powder gases through a hole in the trunk, but because of its short length — only 215 mm — this was done through the muzzle. The gas chamber once served as the base and fly. To reduce the impact on the barrel is screwed muzzle brake compensator with a flash suppressor. As in the past swatches, gunsmith took care of security — from early and involuntary shots fighter defended two fuses. One in the receiver, prevents cocking the shutter, and the second in the trigger mechanism, let the shot from accidentally pressing the trigger. He also served as a translator and a ceasefire. The cartridges were placed in a standard 30-round magazine Kalashnikov.

SIMONOVSKIJj instrument is different in that it was simply versed and very technologically advanced because of the widespread introduction of cool in the manufacture of stamping parts. Based on the specificity of the different branches of service, it was equipped with wood or metal
stock, the latter in the retracted position markedly reduced the length of the machine and submachine guns.

Tests K-042 and K-043 took place in the competitive struggle with a shortened Kalashnikov AKS-74U. No significant advantages in rate of fire and ballistics, they did not show and so on arms were not taken. Also affected the credibility of MT Kalashnikov, who by that time had twice Hero of Socialist Labor. Automatic K-042 and K-043 are the latest exhibits SIMONOVSKIJj: Sergey Gavrilovic gave them to the museum in 1979

Compact machine AG-043
Caliber — 5.45 mm
total length — 680 mm
length with folded butt — 420 mm
unloaded weight -2.1 kg
Magazine capacity — 30 rounds

Like this post? Please share to your friends: