The Six Day War between Israel and Egypt, Syria and Jordan

June 5, 1967 7:45 am, Israeli Air Force struck the first blow to the Egyptian air bases and radar. Then the Egyptian air bases suffered second blow. As a result, the Israeli Air Force have established complete dominance in the air, killing 304 of 419 Egyptian aircraft. Later, the Air Force were defeated Jordan and Syria, seriously injured Iraqi aircraft in the Mosul area. The war began between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Iraq. She received the title of the Six-Day War, since the active military actions lasted from 5 to 10 June 1967.

As a result of this war, Israeli troops had been captured the entire Sinai Peninsula (with access to the eastern coast of the Suez Canal) and the Gaza Strip, the Egyptians, the western-saving value of the Jordan River and the eastern sector of Jerusalem from the Jordanians and the Golan Heights from the Syrians. So Makar, Israel increment area of the country is 3.5 times.

The previous steps

Before the war, the situation in the Middle East began to heat up quickly in the spring of 1967. May 18, 1967 Egyptian President Gamal Nasser claimed the lead UN force to strip the truce with Israel and the shores of the Straits of Tiran. Nasser introduced for these positions troops out of Egypt, and closed to Israeli shipping in the Gulf of Aqaba in the reddish sea. May 30 to the Egyptian-Syrian coalition joined the Jordanian ruler Hussein. It was announced that the Israeli blockade of the coast. The Middle East is rapidly slipping into another Arab-Israeli war.

It must be said that Moscow was not committed to this war. But the Russian Alliance, almost all due to inertia, was morally and politically obliged to support the Arab coalition. May 23, 1967 Moscow announced it would support the Arab countries if they attack Israel. But the Egyptian president for all that hinted that the USSR is still on the sidelines, if Cairo first to unleash a war against the Jewish state. In addition, it must be said that in this war have been of interest to both sides of the conflict. Observers noted at the time the capitals of Arab States (Cairo, Damascus and Amman), the real war psychosis. On the state radio and television constantly passed military marches. After doing the latter, usually in the direction of Israel and the United States followed a portion threats. The morale of the population was rising optimistic reports from the location of the troops that were deployed near the Arab-Israeli borders. Israel is willing to solve the puzzle to obtain a number of strategic positions to kill skoplenny military potential of the enemy.

Arab countries in the spring of 1967 took an active steps to increase the combat readiness of its armed forces and their deployment. May 14, Cairo began bringing their own army on full alert. Troops have been deployed in the Suez Canal area and around it, and on May 15 the Egyptian forces were deployed to the Sinai and began to concentrate on the border of Israel. May 21 in Egypt declared a general mobilization. By May 18, Syrian troops have been deployed in the Golan Heights. Jordan began to mobilize on May 17 and ended it on May 24. May 30 signed an agreement on mutual defense between Cairo and Amman. May 29 Algerian troops face in Egypt, and on May 31, Iraqi troops — To Jordan. The Arab countries were preparing to "throw the Jews into the sea."

Israeli tanks, the coming of the Golan Heights

May 9, 1967 Israeli parliament (Knesset) gave the government the possibility to carry out a military operation against Syria. At the time, the case 2-states have been exacerbated because of three main reasons: 1) because of the conflict aquatic resources (the problem of drainage Jordan), 2) the conflict over control of the demilitarized zone along the strip of the ceasefire in 1948, 3) because of Damascus's support for the Palestinian Arab militias who committed acts of sabotage against Israel. In the second half of May, Israel has begun the first phase of the mobilization of reservists. May 20 Israel ended a partial mobilization (according to other sources, the total). May 23, 1967 the Israeli government announced that the obstacles created by the Israeli shipping, will be considered as a declaration of war, as well as the withdrawal of UN Security sending Iraqi forces in Egypt and the signing of the military alliance between Amman and Cairo. Israel reserved the right to take military actions first. On the same day the Israeli government gave indication of the general staff to finish preparations for war against Syria and Egypt in the country and start a general mobilization. It was also decided to appoint to the post of Minister of Defense General Moshe Dayan, who was a supporter of hard-line in relation to the Arab countries.

Alliance Arab countries are willing to "throw the Jews into the sea" continued mobilization and rapid deployment of its armed forces. The problem was that these events were not intentional and planned, with serious shortcomings. In the run-up to the war or Damascus or Cairo were not harsh intelligence forces of the enemy, resulting in Arab military did not know the composition, action plans and abilities of the Jewish armed forces as a whole and its individual parts, concentrated on the borders of the Arab states. Almost Arabs overestimated their abilities and underestimated the potential of the enemy.

Nomination of military units in the areas of operational deployment, especially in the Sinai peninsula, were not organized and are almost always open. Put forward in the initial position before the coming of the forces of the Arab countries have not taken sufficient measures defensive plan and almost were not ready to repel a possible advent of Israeli troops.

In addition, finding long the troops in a state of full combat readiness (about 22 days) has led to the fact that the voltage of the personnel, calculation of air defense systems, radar and flight of the Air Force dropped evenly. This led to the fall of military readiness, particularly aviation and air defense. Has affected the Arab carelessness. In general, Arab countries were prepared for war in almost all areas of weaker Israel.

The Israeli government meanwhile did not wait until the Arab countries will gather at all the forces and go into coming. Tel Aviv, fully justified fear the coming of the agreed superior enemy with 3 directions. Retreat of the Israeli armed forces had nowhere to go, "depth" of the country is fully comparable to the combined arms tactical defense zone division. Because the Israeli commanders decided to be proactive, to use their advantage in the combat training of the army, to break the Arab coalition forces one by one, before their commanders all agreed joint action plans.

In the first step, it was decided to put the unexpected massive air strikes on enemy air defense and air force, to achieve air superiority. On the night of June 5, 1967 the Israeli government has made a final decision to start the war against Egypt, Syria and Jordan. In the course of this campaign of Tel Aviv was going to defeat the armed forces of the Arab states, which made the danger to the very existence of the Jewish country.

Power of the parties

In quantitative terms, the general and major operational areas, the forces of the Arab Union significantly superior Israeli forces. Not inferior Arab armies, the Israeli forces in terms of equipment. Egyptian and Syrian naval forces greatly outnumbered the Israeli Navy in quantity and
in high regard.

But the general level of combat training of the armed forces of Israel seriously outnumbered forces of the Arab countries. The combat readiness of all major types of aircraft of Egypt, Syria and Jordan, and in particular the Air Force and Air Defense Forces, was low. It first was the result of lower field training troops and staffs also understaffed military units officers, engineers and technical staff. For example, in the Egyptian army officer's personnel manning of military units is 60-70%, and the staffs — 45-50%. Engineering and technical staff all types of aircraft were manned by only 40-45%. In addition, it is worth noting and psychological nuance of Arab armies — their low combat stability, carelessness, lack of initiative.

Tank column with a specific air support

So Makar, despite an advantage overall ways and means of anti-Israel alliance, the chances of an Arab victory was not much.

In the personnel of the Arabs had the advantage of 1.8:1. In Egypt, Jordan and Syria — 435 thousand people (60 teams), with the forces of Iraq — to 547 thousand in Israel — 250 thousand (31 Brigade). In tanks and self-propelled guns — 1.7:1 in favor of the Arabs. The Arabs — 1950 (in Iraq — 2.5 million), Israel — 1120 (according to other sources 800). On aircraft — 1.4:1. The Arabs 415 (with Iraqi 957), the Israelis to 300. On the Sinai to Egypt had 90 million people (20 teams), 900 tanks and self-propelled guns, 284 combat aircraft. Israel: 70 thousand fighter (14 teams), 300 tanks and self-propelled guns, and 200 aircraft. At the direction of Damascus, Syria: 53 people (12 teams), 340 tanks and self-propelled guns, 106 aircraft. Israel: 50 thousand fighter (10 teams), 300 tanks and self-propelled guns, and 70 aircraft. At the direction of Amman in Jordan: 55K fighter (12 teams), 290 tanks and self-propelled guns, 25 aircraft. Israel: 35 million people (7 teams), 220 tanks and self-propelled guns, and 30 aircraft.

The outbreak of war

Martial acts Israeli armed forces launched a military strike aircraft on the main Egyptian air bases and airfields, radar air defense posts, the positions of anti-aircraft missile systems and bridges across the Suez Canal. The bombing inflicted with 2 trains. Plaque of the first echelon of the Israeli Air Force was held in the afternoon on June 5 at 7.45 — 8.30 on advanced airfields in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, air defense, and bridges over the Suez Canal. Plaque second tier — about 9.00 am on airfields, which were placed over the Suez Canal, also in the central and southern parts of the Egyptian country. In the first tier in effect until 100 combat aircraft, and in the 2 — more than 120 cars. Total air strikes were 16 Egyptian airfields, several radar stations.

The acts of the Israeli Air Force had been painstakingly prepared on time, routes and goals. Group of aircraft, which strikes against airfields in the area of Cairo and the Suez Canal, flying from airfields located in the central part of the Jewish state, and deal a blow to the Egyptian air bases in the Sinai Peninsula — from airfields in southern Israel. In order to ensure a surprise strike group, which operated airfields in the area of Cairo and the Suez Canal, after take-off went to the area west of Alexandria over the sea at a distance of 50-80 km from the shore at low altitude 150-300 m Immediately electronic facilities Arab states were created active interference. So Makarov was achieved stealth aircraft approach, because the Egyptian air defense radar on duty did not provide reliable detection of targets, hovering at such low altitudes in the criteria of radio interference. Bypassing the Egyptian air defense zone, Israeli planes in small groups (4-6 aircraft) stormed from the west and north-west directions immediately following the major airports in Egypt: Cairo-west, Cairo International, Inshas, Abu Essaouira, Diamond, Fayed, Luxor, El Cabra, Mansoura. Initially, the Egyptian Arabic command even considered that it struck the U.S. Air Force and England.

When approaching the targets, Israeli warplanes reduced the speed to low and made several visits fighting. First they attacked the attendant aircraft and runways (runways), then destroyed the car parked in the hangar, and aircraft control facilities. For the scrapping of the Israeli Air Force runway used special concrete-bomb, and for the destruction of equipment — fire cannon and unguided rockets (NURS). Arab anti-aircraft fire was opened with a significant delay. Arab aviation and defense were one hundred percent unprepared to repel enemy attacks. Egyptian fighter aircraft was caught by surprise and virtually inactive. The duty fighter units were alerted only on the ground of the Sinai Peninsula, but their actions were not effective. Israeli aircraft suffered no losses from enemy fighters.

Air units that are based in the heart of the country, not even received information on the impacts of the enemy, supported by advanced airfields. Because second-tier blow on them, was also unexpected.

Deployed at firing positions around important objects of the country and airports divisions Egyptian air defense troops (168 SAM launchers, SA-75) had a rather weak opposition to Israeli air strike. In the first 2-raids Israel has lost a total of nine aircraft, six others were very damaged. More combat-ready in Egypt was anti-aircraft artillery during the war, she was hit by 35 Israeli planes (of Israel lost 50 aircraft during the war), with all this high efficiency showed a 57 mm complexes.

After the first attack command the Egyptian Air Force has not taken steps to put in order the surviving forces, although the management and was not a hundred percent broken. This allowed the Israeli air force to perform a successful second strike forces above 120 aircraft and secure first success. As with the first attack, the aircraft were in small groups of 4-6 aircraft with access to the target at very low altitudes. In the coming throughout the day or Israeli warplanes continued to strike the individual objects of Egypt, attacked the Air Force bases Syria, Jordan and Iraq. For example, during the June 5, only on the Syrian airfield Dmeyr was applied nine hits in groups of 4 planes. During the first day or the Israeli air force has made about 400-420 sorties, the air bases of them — up to 300, and the troops — to 120.

As a result of hostilities on June 5, the Israeli air force carried puzzle to defeat the enemy aircraft and took an advantage in the air. In total, 304 were killed 419 Egyptian aircraft, eliminated all Jordanian Air Force (25-28 aircraft), and about half of the Syrian Air Force (53 aircraft), and 10 Iraqi aircraft. In addition, one hundred percent disabled by nine airfields Egypt, Syria, and two airfields, others suffered serious losses. In fact, the upcoming unopposed Israeli air strikes on Arab columns and positions will be an important factor in demoralization and collapse of Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian forces.

Curiously, despite the crushing defeat of the Air Force and Air Defense Forces of Egypt, in the high command witnessed the event was a complete peace of mind, bordering on indifference. The military and political leadership of the country is not even remotely represented for themselves the scale of the disaster has befallen the Egyptian Armed Forces and its consequences.

Captured from the Arabs trophy Russian armored vehicles in the parade in Jerusalem

Already since June 6, Israeli air force has concentrated its main efforts on the specific support of ground troops fighting in the Sinai and Jordan, and from June 8 — at the direction of Damascus. Israeli air force constantly increased, causing the continuous attacks on Arab land forces. In the process of fighting against the groupings of the Army of the Arab countries, Israeli warplanes used bombs, missiles of "air-land", napalm and cannon fire. The strikes at one point, and in fact, without the harsh anti-Arab defense. Complete air superiority, Israel has allowed commanders to use as a ground attack trainer aircraft.

Acts aviation Arab eventually bereavement were episodic nature and could not have a serious impact on the overall course of the war. The activities of the Egyptian air force was limited priemuschestvenno cover the capital and the raids of small groups of aviation to some Israeli targets. Aviation Syria and Iraq on June 5 tried to strike at Haifa, Tel Aviv and other towns, but because of the low strength and a weak training, failed to cause significant harm to Israel. In turn, Israeli air strikes on Syria have led to significant losses of the Syrian Air Force.

Martial acts Army deployed in the morning on June 5 at first on the Sinai direction, then in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, the Israeli-Jordanian and Israeli-Syrian border, and continued until June 13.

To be continued …

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