Recently the war with Russia, Denmark and Saxony, the Swedish empire (the so called kingdom of Sweden, and her possessions in the period from 1561 — after the conquest of Estonia, in 1721) was one of the majestic powers of Europe and had a strong army and navy.
During the 30-year war (1618-1648) brilliant military exploits of Swedish military commanders have provided outstanding role for Sweden in Europe. According Vesfalskomu world under control of Sweden ran across Western Pomerania to the port of Stettin, a certain part of Eastern Pomerania, right on the bay with a Pomeranian coastal towns. The Swedes now ruled over the mouths of the rivers shattered Germany and over most of the coast of the Baltic Sea. As a result of the Danish-Swedish War of 1643-1645 years (it was part of the 30-year war) was signed Bremsebrusky world. According to it, Sweden received Gotland and Saaremaa and also two areas on the Norwegian border: Jämtland and Heredalen. In addition to these territorial concessions, Swedes freed from customs duties during the passage of their vessels through the Sound. In addition, the Danes, as a guarantee of the above concessions, gave Sweden for 30 years the province of Halland.
Then Denmark was defeated in the war years 1657-1658. In the Danish town of Roskilde peace treaty was signed by Denmark it has suffered extensive territorial losses. The Swedes were the three provinces in the south of Scandinavia — Skåne, Halland and Blekinge, Trondheim. Also fled to Sweden, Bornholm Island (later Ven in Vain Strait), Boguslen on the Kattegat and Trond-Len on the Norwegian coast. In addition, the Copenhagen pledged not to miss in the Baltic Sea aboard the "enemy" states. However, after two years of Trondheim and Bornholm were returned to the Danes, but the world Sweden and Poland received all Livonia.
By the beginning of XVIII century Swedish Empire was not only a military and political, and economic recovery. Country had a significant number of factories, including ironworks. On the basis of advanced metallurgy was the military industry. Sweden controlled the important military and strategic points of the Baltic Sea, its garrisons were standing across the Baltic and North Germany. In order to keep the conquered areas and have the opportunity to expand their holdings Swedish kingdom contained a massive military. Swedish naval forces full control of the waters of the Baltic, in their composition was 42 battleships, 12 frigates (according to other sources 38 battleships and 10 frigates), a significant number of smaller warships, with 13 thousand sailors. Swedish navy had three squadrons on board their ships were up to 2.7 thousand guns. In addition, the Swedes could take as much as the military and merchant navy ships — up to 800 units. They can be better equipped with guns, used as military transports, landing craft. Sweden because of this armada could throw his army virtually any point in the Baltics. Her opponents did not have such power that the Russian Federation and Poland on the Baltic fleet was not, the Danish fleet was weaker Swedish Navy.
The Swedish system of military planning to anticipate that the line of massive forts on the Limits of the Swedish Empire in northern Germany, the Baltic States and Finland with strong garrisons and strong artillery can withstand the first strike the enemy's army to buy time for the transfer of reinforcements, the main forces of the Swedish army. These fortresses can become springboards for major focus of Swedish armed forces to invade someone else's views. On the border with Russia was such fortresses of Narva, Iamburg (Yam) Noteburg (Walnut) Nienschanz Kexholm (Korella), etc. The main body of the Swedish army stationed in the metropolis.
The Swedish Empire in 1658.
The development of the Swedish Army
Since the days of the 30-year war and military reforms of King Gustov II Adolf (1611-1632), the Swedish army was listed invincible in Europe. A small standing army of Sweden was on the end of the 16th century, in addition, in the event of war summoned the militia. The Swedish army had a large military experience and was the brainchild of King Gustav II Adolf "Lion of the North". It was the most ancient, second only to the Netherlands, unchanging Army Europe. If the armies of Europe were the main wage, the Swedish army even before the reform, "the Lion of the North", in the mid-16th century, was formed on the basis of the principle of mandatory military service, and selective conscription. Any rural community was to put a certain number of boys. From their special committee chose a fighter according to recruiting lists. This ensured a uniform state of the army, which was more mentally stable, disciplined, unlike mercenaries. When Gustavus Adolphus country was divided into nine geographical constituencies. Each environment formed a "big Regiment" numbering in the 3 thousand people. Each large regiment was divided into three "Field Regiment" of eight companies each. Shelves were deployed, each in his well-known location. Recruit had to be one in ten farmer. This system allowed Sweden to have a peacetime army strong enough to 27 thousand people. At the time of death Gustova Adolphus in the Swedish army had 23 infantry and 8 cavalry regiments.
Gustavus Adolphus also laid the foundations of the linear strategy: instead of building deep, which was adopted in the armies of Europe, the Swedish musketeers were built only 3 ranks, and pikemen in 6 ranks. The Musketeers used a volley fire, and pikemen used their tool, not only in defense but in coming. Field artillery was divided into heavy and light.
Military reform Karl XI
Later in the Swedish system was developed lodged troops. Lord of Karl XI (1660 — 1697) in the 1680s had a fundamental reform of the armed forces, which further increment of combat power. The system, when the army called for the decimation of the peasant or artisan small, was very unpopular in the country, also have a standing army was hard for the treasury of the country. Karl XI did not want to burden the state budget, but with all this country needed a perfectly cooked, unchanging army. Was introduced lodged system of recruitment of the armed forces. The essence of the system was the fact that the main cost of maintaining the same armies covered by the proceeds of municipal and personal possessions of earth. With this purpose in advance was made special military land register, he took into account the ownership of peasant communities, private farms, which were used for the maintenance of soldiers and officers. In turn, community and private lands were divided by the yield of similar sites, income from the 1st section of earth had to miss out on the 1-st fighter. One such area voedinyzhdy joined a group of farms — a company. Any "company" was to contain the 1st infantry soldier. During that farms were exempt from taxes. In addition, every soldier stood a piece of land where his house was.
Cavalry completed with almost as well. Rider and his horse contained one or more farms, for which they lowered taxes. Officers were given a salary as an earth station to the estate, its size and profitability depend on the position of the holder. A similar system is partly extended and Navy. The reforms in the Swedish empire was 38 thousand people immutable forces, plus the provinces — about 25 thousand in the garrison and other services. In the same period, built the latest military harbor — Karlskrona ("Crown of Charles"). This system is geographically the militia army recruitment Sweden survived until the end of the XIX century. So Makar, a significan
t part of the peacetime infantry, cavalry and sailors engaged in agriculture, removing a significant pressure on the country's treasury. Armament, stallion (in the cavalry), uniforms were on the farm, and the fighter could at least some moment to march. Ammunition, other army equipment, ammunition posted on the housing stock in working capital. Education fighter produced by verbovaniya on a yearly month military training, which took place after the harvest.
The base of Karlskrona.
The Swedish army in front of the Northern War
When the throne Charles XII (1697 — 1718) in Sweden in peace time was about 60 thousand army. In wartime, the size of the army increased by recruitments. Not counting the same army, which was equipped with the above method, in Sweden were numerically small mercenary troops — mercenaries recruited from the royal horse guards (Brabant) and gunners.
It was one of the most advanced war machines that have been made in human history. It strengthened the religious component. The morale of the Swedish army was very high — the soldiers and officers considered themselves invincible. This idea was based on a particular religious sentiment, which was based on the Protestant doctrine of divine predestination. This sentiment was supported by the regimental pastors who comforted the wounded and dying, oversaw the way of life and the performance of religious rites fighters. Protestant ministers inspired military fatalism (practically there was a process of programming the indifference to death.) For example, in the assault of enemy positions fighters do not have to try to escape, they were to go on the attack in full view. By keeping their flocks and on the battlefield, the priests themselves are often killed. The most basic proof of God's favor to the Swedish king, the army was winning — and the Swedish army used to win, went from victory to victory. Fighter assured and they were convinced of this, that the Swedish army sent by God to punish heretics, apostates and sinners, dishonest and wicked rulers who went to war against Sweden without fair circumstances. To maintain this myth pastors have resorted to biblical episodes. For example, during the war with Russia, the Swedes associate with old Jews who are at war with the Gentiles. The Protestant religion was necessary for the maintenance of soldiers and officers in the ruthlessness of the enemy: the word "penalty" and "revenge" in the Great Northern War did not descend from the language of the pastors. They drew their inspiration from the horrific scenes of the Old Testament, where the ancient Jews were exterminated without exception not only people but even their cattle, dogs, all living creatures. In this regard, (mental attitude) Swedish army resembles Hitler's Wehrmacht.
War and psychology meet the Swedish nobility. For nobles war was a source of glory, honors, enrichment, and the world is often turned around real need, boredom and obscurity. These were the true descendants of the Vikings, peaceful life was just boring. This idea is expressed stunningly well-known Swedish captain Levenhaupt: "In war and abroad and have one small thing amuses more than the so-called happiness, which I was ashamed and vanity at home, at home, killing time." Swedish nobleman Gustav Bunde read: "Many found the knights themselves, and made known their capabilities than the dignity of its own class support, while on the other they had to be home to vegetate in nothingness."
For a frisky collection troops were designed perfectly obmyslennye mobilization plans that ensure frisky deployment and concentration of the main forces in the command Fri favorites to send to the province on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Plans to anticipate the amount of time required for the transition, recreation, relaxation area determined moving troops. As a result, Sweden ahead of his enemy in the mobilization deployment of troops. This came out first Northern War.
The army was well trained and armed soldiers are brave and hardy. It was headed by a prominent military leader of his time, Karl XII. It differed determination and speed of action. In contrast to control armies of the enemy, who held a methodical strategy, Karl was not afraid to maneuver freely and rapidly bolshennymi forces to take risks (and this was facilitated by the presence of a massive fleet). He could suddenly strike where it did not expect the fight to impose on him a lucrative criteria. Peel the enemy alone. Karl XII was a supporter of the strategy of Alexander the Great, tried to defeat the enemy in a decisive battle.
Carl was personally brave, it was a warrior king. When in Stockholm a few came immediately paralyzing the will of the news immediately with the capture of the Danish army Holstein, came the news of the invasion troops Augustus II in Livonia without a declaration of war and the news of the union of 3 majestic powers against Sweden. It horrifies Municipal Council of Sweden, began to offer stop the war through negotiations. Lord of Carl rose from its own place, and said that he would fight to complete victory over all enemies. The outbreak of war dramatically changed the character of Charles, he immediately gave up all pleasures of youth and become a real ascetic. Since then, the master did not know a luxury, no wine, no women, no games, no rest. Began to dress as a normal fighter, becoming a monk in a real soldier's jacket.
In the center of the middle Stogolma many monuments to kings and is a monument to Charles XII.
Freedom of maneuver Swedish Army clarifies not only the presence of mobilization plans and a strong navy, and methods of supply troops. Their software was carried out not only by the transport of supplies from rear bases, and from local resources (often plunder the population). "The war was feeding itself" — the Swedish army used local resources to supply, but was required for this method of frisky movement, seized the area could not long keep the troops. As a result, the Swedish army was not linked to the bases of supply.
The Swedes were treated inhumanely not only the enemy, his troops, and the local population. In one of the letters to the General Renshildu Swedish master, said: "Everyone who Gimp delivery (indemnity) or generally anything Guilty should be punished ruthlessly and without mercy, and burned their home …" And then, settlements, where "you meet resistance, should be burned, whether residents or not guilty. " In another letter, he or she shall own generals that if the enemy does not leave them alone, then you have to "empty out and burn all around, in a word, so to ruin the country, so that no one could have for you to come." Lord of the reports that he received a similar way: "We're doing our best and also burn out and ruining every place where there is the enemy. Not so long ago, so I makarom burned the whole city … ".
And here we litsezreem that the latter is characteristic ruthlessness of Western civilization. Methods mercilessly terror against the civilian population were armed with "enlightened Europeans" for a long time before the "blond beast" of Adolf Hitler.
In the field of strategy in the Swedish army stuck linear battle formations. The infantry was built on the battlefield in the 2-3 lines, cavalry regiments usually placed benches on the flanks of the infantry formations. On the battlefield, the Swedish infantry fired volleys at the enemy, and then resolutely walked into the bayonet charge. The cavalry (dragoons and cuirassiers) boldl
y cut in order to enemy. Infantry, cavalry and artillery were closely interaction. The main tactic in the fight was cheeky infantry attack on the central position of the enemy. Usually, the enemy could not stand the shock resistant and courageous Swedish infantry, cavalry and hit completes the rout.
Swedish infantry units by two-thirds consisted of musketeers and pikemen third part of (soldier armed with pikes). But gradually the whole infantry was armed with rifles with fixed bayonets. The cavalry was armed with pistols and sabers, the dragoons had more and muskets. Cuirassiers were protected cuirass. Swedish field artillery in 1700 was merged into a single regiment with staff of 1,800 people. In service with the regiment were 8-bit and 16-pounder howitzers, 3-pounder field guns.
As a result, the Swedish army was ready for war much better than the Russian. She was mobilized, well-armed and trained, showed high morale, it was headed by a professional and experienced young warlord generals. The Russian army was being reformed, the old traditions were broken, the new has not yet taken root. Major weakness of the Russian army was the fact that its high command was dominated by foreigners.
Swedish standard peaks.
Military plans of the allies and Sweden
The overall plan of the war the allies — Denmark, Saxony, Russia was reduced to alternate attack on the Swedish countryside in northern Germany, southern Baltic, Karelia. Encroachment of fundamental strategic fortresses, towns, pt. The Russian command was going to act in Ingria and Karelia — RF return of land lost as a result of the Troubles of the early 17th century, access to the Baltic Sea. Perfectly understood the strategic importance of fortresses in Ingria and Karelia and Swedes. They were the "key" to the Livonia and Finland.
A specific action plan developed on the basis of Allied agreements concluded with Saxony and Denmark. The Danes and Saxons had to come first, and our homeland after the conclusion of peace with the Porte.
Preparations for war in Russia tried to keep secret. When a Swedish resident in Moscow Kniper Krohn asked to explain the Russian military production, the creation of a standing army, he was told that after the dissolution of the Strelets troops in Russia left the infantry, and the country needs to be ready for war with the Ottoman Empire. On the secrecy of preliminary events says that the closeness of the war did not even warned the governor of Pskov and Novgorod frontline. The object of the first impact of the Russian army was selected Narva. The success of the war was associated with a simultaneous attack of the three powers, but from the beginning the plan was broken.
In Sweden there were mobilization plans that allow a frisky time to transfer the army to a threatened area. In addition, there was a draft on which Novgorod, Pskov, Olonec, Kargopol, Arkhangelsk were to be Swedish. So Makarov, Sweden, Russia cast further in continental areas, from their own possessions in the Baltic Sea into a powerful blow to the commercial rivals (destroyed Russian trade through Arkhangelsk). The Swedes were going to have strong offensive campaign against each opponent individually. More insecure opponent was listed as Denmark (she had a fleet), against her plan to concentrate the main efforts of the army and navy at the initial stage of the war. At this time in the Baltic Swedish fortresses had to pin down a stubborn defense forces and other enemies of the expected arrival of the main force.