Hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis)

Hyperthyroidism — a syndrome associated with the overproduction of thyroid hormones. Thyrotoxicosis can occur in diseases of the thyroid gland and the pituitary gland.

We can say thatthyrotoxicosis— The opposite of the state of hypothyroidism, if at lower levels of thyroid hormones in the body all the processes are slowed down, then the increase in their metabolism speeds up and organs begin to function with the increased workload.


  • More than 80% of cases the cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves 'disease (Graves' disease) — a condition in which the thyroid gland increases in size and begin to produce excessive amounts of hormones.
  • Multiple nodes, the cells which secrete excessive amounts of hormones.
  • Toxic thyroid adenoma (Plummer's disease) — a disease characterized by the presence of a single node (adenomas) that produce large amounts of hormones.

Less common in thyrotoxicosis are guilty of:

  • increased consumption of iodine;
  • overdose of thyroid hormone in the treatment of hypothyroidism;
  • pituitary disease.

What's going on?

An excessive amount of thyroid hormones leads to metabolic disorders, changes from cardiovascular, digestive, nervous and other systems of the body.

When thyrotoxicosis concerned:

  • mental changes: tearfulness, excessive irritability, mood swings, insomnia;
  • excessive sweating, hot flashes;
  • weakness;
  • heart palpitations, feeling of disruption of the heart, shortness of breath;
  • jitter, which is especially noticeable on the fingers of outstretched arms;
  • goggle-eye puffiness and the appearance of bags under the eyes, swelling of the eyelids, the inability to focus on an object, double vision;
  • weight loss;
  • diarrhea.

Dangerous complication of hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis) is a thyrotoxic crisis — a life-threatening condition. It can provoke: untreated hyperthyroidism, severe mental trauma, infection, surgery.

When tireotoksicheskom Stroke the person has a significant agitation, tremor (shaking) hands and feet, vomiting and diarrhea, the body temperature rises to 400C, blood pressure rises significantly, may disrupt heart rhythm is disturbed formation of urine (up to complete its termination — anuria). Then comes the loss of consciousness, the patient goes into a coma.

Treatment of thyrotoxic crisis held in the intensive care unit.

Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis sets Endocrinologist by examination of the patient and the results of laboratory and instrumental investigations:

  • study of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones in the blood (thyroxine, triiodothyronine);
  • Ultrasound thyroid allows to estimate the size of cancer and its structure, with ultrasound using a special probe and evaluate blood flow in the prostate (color Doppler);
  • thyroid scintigraphy: to evaluate the functioning of various departments of the thyroid gland (including knots);
  • in some cases may need to conduct fine-needle puncture biopsy of the thyroid gland.

Treatment hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis) depends on the cause, it has caused, and may be medical or surgical.

Therapeutic treatment is to appoint a special means of suppressing excessive activity of the thyroid gland. Typically, treatment such drugs are contraindicated for pregnant and lactating women. In the year after treatment to prevent pregnancy.

Surgical treatment is especially indicated for the nodes in the thyroid gland. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. Nodes are removed or part of the gland. With modern technology, the operation is almost invisible seam. The efficiency is reduced at the3-5 day.

And therapeutic, and surgical treatment can completely eliminate the symptoms of hyperthyroidism. In some cases, treatment is necessary after chronic administration of small doses of thyroid hormones.

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