Uveitis

Uveitis.  Photo from www.sciencephoto.com

Uveitis— Disease of choroidal inflammatory nature. Translated from the Greek "uvea" — "Grape", as in appearance choroid resembles a bunch of grapes. Choroid (vascular tract) is located between the sclera and the retina. It consists essentially of the vessels supplying blood eye. The front, the visible part of the choroid is called the iris. The middle part — ciliated (ciliary) body. And back — choroid.

Depending on the predominant localization of inflammation distinguished:

  • iritis — inflammation of the iris;
  • cyclite — inflammation of the ciliary body;
  • iridocyclitis — inflammation of the iris and ciliary body;
  • peripheral uveitis — inflammation of the flat part of the ciliary body;
  • choroiditis — inflammation of the back of the choroid — choroid;
  • chorioretinitis — inflammation of the choroid and retina;
  • panuveit — inflammation all parts of the choroid.

Iritis and iridocyclitis are anterior uveitis, and choroiditis and chorioretinitis — posterior uveitis.

Causes

The cause of uveitis may include:

  • trauma (particularly in children);
  • chemical and physical factors;
  • allergies;
  • bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. For example, tuberculosis, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, histoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus, etc.;
  • rheumatic diseases of the body. For example, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, etc.;
  • systemic diseases. Such as sarcoidosis.

What's going on?

At anterior uveitis quickly may experience:

  • redness of the eyes;
  • pain in the eye;
  • watery eyes;
  • sensitivity to light;
  • reduced vision.

At posterior uveitis Symptoms of the disease appear late and they have little expression. Pain is usually not. The eye is not red. Gradually decreased vision or there is a "spot" in front of the eye (scotoma), "mist" or "veil." There may be a distortion of objects, not strong pain behind the eyeball.

Uveitis can occur kratkostrochno (acute) or long period of time to maintain its activity in the eye (chronic). Approximately half of the cases goes to recurrent uveitis form, so that all patients with acute uveitis should be observed by a specialist.

Complications:

  • the occurrence of posterior synechiae or imperforate pupil. The top edge of the pupil sticks to the lens. The pupil is non-circular, scalloped;
  • secondary glaucoma because of violation of the outflow of aqueous humor;
  • clouding of the lens (cataract);
  • vitreous opacity;
  • swelling of the retina;
  • neovascularization in the retina (pathological);
  • retinal detachment.

Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis and treatment of uveitis has been ophthalmologist. To confirm the diagnosis applies biomicroscopic examination of the anterior segment of the eye, and fundus ophthalmoscopy. Additional general examination (CT of the chest, blood tests for various infections and diseases) help to clarify the cause of uveitis.

If the detected infectious cause of uveitis, prescribe antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents. If the nature of uveitis understood, it is also used anti-inflammatory drugs — both non-steroidal and corticosteroid (hormonal). In all cases, topical treatment as eye drops, ointments. It is particularly important application of drops, extending the pupil in the first hours after the onset of anterior uveitis.

The later started treatment of uveitis, the more seriously damaged the finest structures of the eye, which can lead to vision loss. So advice: in the event of even a minor "reddening eyes," which does not pass through one or two of the day, you should immediately visit ophthalmologist. Even the most minor damage eye need to take seriously.

 

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