VSS sniper rifle (top) and a special automatic AC (bottom)
To equip formed in the Russian Union by 1970-1980-m respectively parts for special purposes — several brigades and battalions for specific purposes, as special units of the Interior Ministry and the KGB, the intelligence units of infantry, armored, airborne divisions and connections Marines Russian Army and Navy Navy needed to effectively implement a concealed weapons of various types and destinations, including small-sized and quiet small arms.
One such tool for the Russian special forces became unified silent small arms designed to TSNIITOCHMASH in 1980. It included a special sniper complex, consisting of a 9-mm sniper rifle special BCC 9-mm machine special speakers and special 9mm cartridges.
This complex appeared as a result of amplification of confrontation between the Russian Union and the West in the 1960s — 1970s. Expansion at this time of the geography of undeclared wars and local conflicts that have been fought on virtually every continent, sought for a successful struggle with our potential adversaries and more new types of special weapons, including to defeat short-range enemy personnel, equipment, tools personal protection.
A significant drawback of Russian small sample silent guns of the first generation, by this time was in service with Russian special forces were relatively low, compared with the gun-arms purpose, combat and service-operational properties — sighting range, lethal, and the breakdown of bullets, weight and size properties. As a result, existing standards are silent weapons could completely change the standard all-arms weapons and were, in fact, only a complement to regular Swatch Special Forces weapons. These standards were equipped with automatic small gun nadulnymi special devices to silent, flameless, so called. "Silencers" and their patrons were finalized in the direction of growth of the mass of the bullet and lowering its initial velocity to subsonic. But as an important condition for combat missions Special Forces units on the ground was the enemy stealth action, the extraordinary importance in carrying out similar operations acquired with the introduction of guns firing small unmasks factors — sound, flame and smoke, that is the "silent" guns. In addition, when the end of the 1970s dramatically changed special forces military tasks, to identify missing and the effectiveness of individual specimens of a special (silent) guns and ammunition.
Specifically, by this time, in accordance with state applets development of weapons and military equipment, began a research and development (R & D) in the conceptualization and creation of a unified system of silent small arms in return for certain types of special tools, which are then operated by the Russian special purpose units of the army and KGB.
Realization of these works was entrusted to the Central Research Institute of Machine Building clear (TSNIITOCHMASH) in Klimovsk, under the leadership of the KGB of the USSR Research Institute, together with the Basic Intelligence Department of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the USSR. On the solution of the intended target Russian gunsmiths approached comprehensively. Creating a unified system of silent small arms planned spending by developing new designs, reducing the range of special weapons and ammunition, working off the right kinds of such tools, designed for standardized cartridges.
After the analysis of typical tactical problems solved special forces units, and conduct a number of different studies, it was decided to develop all the forces of several special purpose noiseless shooting complexes, and including — the sniper that would include three main components: a "weapon — ammunition — sight. "
9mm SNIPER RIFLE Special BCC "Vintorez"
In 1983 he had developed requirements for newcomer special sniper systems (get code "Vintorez"). This gun was supposed to provide covert defeat of the enemy at ranges up to 400 meters, including those in the personal boonezaschity. Solve a similar puzzle was only possible with the introduction of a new cartridge with the heaviest bullet that would have sufficient lethality and higher accuracy of hits throughout the sighting range of up to 400 meters sniper shooting range on such sought the creation of new optical (daytime), and electro-optical (night ) sights.
Partially disassembled sniper rifle VSS
Since all the necessary equipment to carry out combat missions behind enemy lines commandos had to carry around, the newcomer to the arms placed very strict requirements on weight and dimensions. In addition, for a series of special operations rifle had a similar deal to small in size the main components that allowed concealed carry, and it is rapidly converted into firing position.
Proceeding from the requirements of the study on "Vintorez" Klimovskikh gunsmiths were conducted in the following areas:
— Development of technical capacity to ensure effective firing range of the silent sniper rifles (ie, shooting at a distance of 400 m, at which the possibility of hitting the target should be more than 0.8);
— The choice of the principle of sound suppression shot and lowering his ardor;
— The development of the design concept sniper cartridge with subsonic bullets, firing at providing a given accuracy, lethality and reliable automation;
— Design of the cartridge and the justification of its main design characteristics;
— The development of the design concept of automatic weapons to provide the desired patterning, the level of sound of the shot, reliable performance automation, mass-dimensional characteristics;
— Design a sniper rifle;
— Development of new optical sights.
Designing a special sniper complex TsNIITochmash began with the creation of a new submachine gun cartridge created for the defeat of the enemy in a specific criteria.
The main problem that had to be addressed Klimovskikh designers, was to address the issue of sound suppression and shot.
The intensity of the sound of the shot depends on the muzzle pressure of powder gases. In addition, the very bullet, if it has a supersonic initial velocity (more than 330 m / s), and generates a shock (ballistic) wave. All that unmasks the firing position arrow. To prevent the sound from the ballistic wave gun with a silencer must have the
original subsonic velocity. But less than the speed of a bullet, the less damaging effect of flatness and terrible line of motion, which significantly lowers the effective firing range. So Makarov, in particular small arms nestled implementation had combined two disparate characteristics — you need an effective firing range and sufficient lethality of bullets at a relatively low speed of its source. At the same time killing the sniper shot in a similar complex could only be achieved with the introduction of the original silencer and subsonic speeds.
The result of this work was the new 7.62mm cartridge experienced consisting of bullet 7.62 x 54 mm sniper rifle cartridge 7 H1 and sleeve 7.62 x 25-mm pistol cartridge TT. This cartridge meets the requirements of the tactical and technical specifications (TTP) to "Vintorez" for accuracy, but the bullet did not provide the necessary acts of slaughter. In addition, the development of a new sniper cartridge into account that in the long term to the noiseless complex state machine in the near future can be made excessive demands on the breakdown of bullets. In the process works, and considered the question of the unification of the sniper rifles and the ammunition used by the machine.
Subsequent studies on promising ammunition was focused on the creation of a fundamentally novel bag holder. A group of professionals from TsNIITochmash by Vladimir Fedorovich Krasnikova developed on the basis of the sleeve of 5.45 × 39-mm submachine gun cartridge once 7.62mm Sniper Insert a subsonic (300 m / s) velocity, received index "RG037." His bullet was structurally designed as follows sniper rifle bullet cartridge 7 H1. Its outer shape has been determined to meet the requirements for the external ballistics of bullets at subsonic speeds. New sniper cartridge has a length of 46 mm and a total weight of 16 g, the mass of the bullet, 10.6 g and had a good accuracy. For example, at a distance of 100 m for this cartridge R50 was 4 cm, and at 400 m — 16.5 cm, but a new cartridge RGO37 not allow confidently hit enemy personnel in ballistic body armor at point-blank range 400 m
Under the 7.62-mm cartridge was designed RGO37 silent sniper rifle, which received index "RG036." Lead designer of the rifle was Peter Ivanovich Serdyukov.
Selected scheme of automation with a gas engine and rigid locking of the barrel by turning the bolt rifles provide reliable performance in various operating criteria. Combined silencer consisting of nadulnogo chamber muffler with obliquely positioned baffles separator and an expansion chamber for partial discharge gases from the barrel, reduced noise level shot up to a value similar to the 9-mm pistol PB.
But despite the fact that the 7.62-mm sniper rifle set in the RG036 and RG037 Chuck stood preliminary tests, follow-up work with him were discontinued, as the end of 1985, the Ministry of Defense Industry of the USSR approves new requirements for special state machine complex — yet one element of silent guns. Based on the TTZ was required to make a tool that allows you to confidently hit multiple targets (manpower), protected by body armor type 6 B2 (III protection class) at a distance of 400 m to the machine also were presented the highest requirements for low noise firing, including automatic fire. It was assumed that for the convenience of carrying a folding butt, he will, in addition, for the possibility of its acquisition of various optical sights. Because most definitely needed to unify the sniper and machine systems for the ammunition used.
20-round magazine to a special machine with a 10-AC chargers casings from 9 × 39-mm special ammunition (left to right): 7 H12; joint venture. 6, the joint venture. 5
Based on the new challenges, the designers were able to correctly estimate the bullet 7.62mm cartridge RG037 fails to ensure the defeat of the manpower, promising a secure means of personal protection. In accordance with the revised 'demands to silent sniper complex.
Because designers TsNIITochmash NV Zabelin and LS Dvoryaninova had to start work on the creation on the basis of the liner 7.62 mm submachine gun cartridge standard 1943 new 9 x 39-mm special sniper cartridge joint venture. 5 (index 7 H8) with the heaviest bullet weighing 16.2 grams (with the original subsonic speed — 290 m / s). That bullet was more than twice as heavy as the bullet 7.62 x 39 mm cartridge standard in 1943 and nearly five times the mass of the bullet 5.45 x 39-mm submachine gun cartridge.
SP bullet cartridge. 5 had a composite core: the parent metal (with a truncated tip diameter of 0.5 mm) and the main lead, rolled up in a bimetallic shell. Metal core acts to increase the breakdown bullet was located in her nose. Lead core not only pocketed pool desired mass, and provide its penetration of the rifling of the barrel. Pointed ogival shape bullets provided her excellent ballistic performance when flying at subsonic speeds. Despite the initial subsonic speed bullet with that weight had a significant kinetic energy — the departure she was about 60 kg-m, and at a distance of 450 m — 45 kgm. That was quite enough for a reliable enemy manpower in light of personal protective equipment. Tests have shown that at a distance of up to 400 m bullet cartridge joint venture. 5 has enough energy to break through a 2 mm steel sheet, while maintaining the desired slaughter act. Cartridge weight JV. 5-32,2 g cartridge length — 56 mm, the length of a bullet cartridge — 36 mm.
The distinctive coloring bullet cartridges joint venture. 5 does not have. Only on closures cartons for 10 rounds was applied the words "Sniper."
Already in 1987, a new standard special sniper guns made on the basis of RG036 and perestvolenny a 9-mm cartridge SP. 5 (recognizable under the code name "Vintorez"), taking into service units special purpose troops of the KGB and the reconnaissance and sabotage parts of Russian armed forces under the designation "special sniper rifle" (ARIA) index 6 P29.
The new instrument, which is nestled group means of attack and defense, were designed to hit targets with sniper fire in the criteria required to keep silent, flameless fire on an open enemy troops (liquidation officers of the enemy, his reconnaissance, observers and time), and for the scrapping of the surveillance devices, pieces of military equipment and liquidation unarmored vehicles at distances up to 400 m
Rifle BCC consisted of: barrel to the receiver; muffler with adjustable sights, butt, bolt carrier with gas piston; shutter; revertible mechanism, the impact mechanism; trigger; forearm, gas tube, receiver cover and store.
Automatic sniper rifle VSS worked on the principle of powder combustion gases from the bore. Produced by turning the locking gate around its own axis at 6 lugs. Flag Guard descended on the right side of the receiver at once with it, shut the slot handles reloading, protecting it from entering the inside of the dust and mud. My type of fire is mounted inside the trigger guard for the trigger. With its horizontal movement to the right is a single fire, while moving to the left — automatic shooting. Handle reloading placed on the right side of the receiver. Sights consisted of open-sectoral scope mounted on the body of the muffler, and calculated on the firing range up to 420 meters and flies in namushnike. Meal produced from a plastic box-store-in-line for 10 rounds. Butt wood frame type with rubber butt.
The trigger rifle VSS provides high accuracy single shots. Hammer mechanism with a separate mainspring admitted conducting both single and automatic fire.
ngle fire is central to the VSS sniper rifle, it is characterized by high precision. When firing single shots from a prone position with a stop at a distance of 100 m by a series of 5 shots costavlyaet R 50 4 cm and 400 m — R50-16, 5 cm However, continuous bursts of fire can be used in an encounter with the enemy for short distances, or when there is a need to hit the target, not observed correctly. Given that the capacity magazine rifles BCC is only 10 rounds, for automatic fire, usually, can be carried out in small bursts of 2-4 shots, and in exceptional cases — one continuous burst until used up cartridges in the store.
Reducing shot sound (up to 130 decibels at a distance of 3 meters from the muzzle — the same level of sound when fired from small-bore rifle) was achieved, along with a special silencer "integrated type" with the flow of propellant gas separator introduction sniper cartridge joint venture. 5 with good ballistic characteristics. "Integrated" muffler has permitted greatly reduce the overall length of the gun.
Controls sniper rifle VSS
Along with this ability rifle VSS has expanded a whole palette of sights, both optical and night vision. At the request of the customer sniper rifles were equipped with different scopes: the KGB — 1 day optical P43 (allowing lead in the daytime aimed fire at 400 m) and night bespodsvetochnym 1 PN75 (MBNP-1), the black-hours a day designed for a distance of 300 m; and for the GRU — respectively — Day PSO-1-1 and PO 4 x34 and night — 1 PN51 (NSPU-3). Specially commissioned by the secret police for carrying concealed rifle can be disassembled into three nodes (the barrel with a silencer, receiver with trigger mechanism and butt) and coupled with the sight and shops are packed in a suitcase like "Diplomat" sizes 450 h370 h140 mm, This time, the right to transfer weapons from the transport position to the firing is less than one minute.
The kit includes VSS rifle carrying bag run, 4 stores, spares, and a carrying bag rifle.
After the occurrence of the cartridge joint venture. 6 of its introduction into the sniper rifle VSS made probable defeat of the enemy, even at maximum range precision fire, and at 100 m — in flak jackets to protection class II and including (in modern systematization), putting it on a par with the most severe types of infantry small tools.
VSS sniper rifle and tactical flashlight (top) and a special automatic AC (bottom) (right side)
In 2000, teachers Combined Arms Military Academy. Frunze and its affiliate, the Course "The Shot" Colonel VV and AA Korablin Catch released in the brochure "Modern Russian small arms," Review of combat use of this tool, which allows a lot of properties to evaluate the highest VSS sniper rifle: "The commander of motorized Company of the 1st regiment of in force in 1995 in the mountainous region of south Yarysh-Snout Crucible, now Major VA Loukashov, from personal experience says BCC good addition to the standard weapons of infantry units in those criteria. His company operated in isolation from the main force and conducted reconnaissance of enemy forces and their agents. Rothe were delivered several sets of rifles BCC. Commander allocated to exploration team — usually a company commander himself or one of the platoon commanders — was armed, except for the regular machine rifle VSS and carried her back to the strap. When, in the course of investigation required to hit a single target at a distance of 400 m, a silent shot of the BCC did not allow the enemy to find a group. Successfully used this tool and in other cases that required quiet and flameless fire. "
9-mm submachine special speaker "Shaft"
VSS sniper rifle proved so successful prototype of special small tool that PI Serdyukov at once with it on its base is developing the next set of guns silent on "Shaft." The new complex included: special automatic AC, which is a modernized version of "Vintorez" and special Insert the joint venture. 6 with a bullet over-penetration.
A special automatic speaker with folded buttstock (left side)
In TsNIITochmash for complex automata "Val" designer Yu Z. Frolov and technologist ES Kornilov have developed a fundamentally new special cartridge SP. 6 (index 7 H9) with armor-piercing bullet (bare-core). This bullet had a more penetrative action highest than a bullet cartridge joint venture. 5. It is nice to defeat manpower, secure protivoskolochnymi body armor to protect inclusive class III (in modern taxonomy), and soft-skinned vehicles at a distance of 400 m, it provides 100 percent penetration of 6 mm thick plate made of stainless steel on the firing range of 100 meters, and at ranges of up to 400 m — 2 mm sheet iron (metal army helmet (helmet) or iron plate width of 1.6 mm and 25-mm pine boards while maintaining sufficient slaughter zapregradnogo acts, equivalent piercing power of the American 5.56 mm automatic rifle M16 A1 7.62mm AKM rifle and 5.45 mm AK-74.
Ballistic properties of the joint venture rounds. 5 and SP. 6 are close to each other, because both cartridge can be used in weapons with one and the same gun. Accuracy of bullets cartridge joint venture. 5 higher than that of SP bullet cartridge. 6.
The device of bullets, the breakdown of their action and ballistics led and purpose of these cartridges: for the sniper shooting unprotected unsheltered manpower, usually used cartridges joint venture. 5, and to engage targets in personal protective equipment, located in the vehicles or behind cover, — cartridges joint venture. 6.
SP bullet cartridge. 6 consisted of an iron core, lead-shirts and bimetallic shell. Thanks to his own design bullet cartridge joint venture. 6 had the highest more penetrative action than a bullet cartridge joint venture. 5. Languid bullet joint venture. 6 had a bimetallic shell with rear speaker cone and a 6.5 mm spiky metal heat-treated core (diameter 7.5 mm) in the lead-shirt. The metal core of the bullet had significantly great length than the bullet cartridge joint venture. 5. The length of the bullet lead the joint venture. 6 has been reduced to 10 mm shoulder which forms a cylindrical centering portion (diameter of 9 mm and a length of 6 mm), because the nose of the bullet from the shell performed. The core had ogival nose portion and the rear cone. Bullet weight — 15.6 g bullet cartridge joint venture. 6 had a mass — 15.6 g, the mass of the core — 10.4 g, and the mass of the cartridge — 32.0 g Cartridge length — 56 mm, 41 mm bullets. Vershinka bullet cartridge joint venture. 6 stained a dark color. On corked cardboard boxes for these cartridges deposited distinctive band of dark color. Later, after the occurrence of the 9-mm submachine gun cartridge with armor-piercing bullet 7 H12 vershinka bullet cartridge joint venture. 6 was painted in blue.
The new cartridge SP. 6 received the best reviews have been deceived by professionals. The develop
ers of this cartridge wrote: "9-mm cartridge, which owns a unique breakdown and lethality to reach your enemy wherever it would get your vision, simultaneously punching at least some body armor from those who the real man can wear without outside help. And not a longish queue can cause quite a damage to incapacitate a truck launcher or radar. "
Partial disassembly of the AU in machine
Automatic AS "Val" (code 6 P30) is a personal weapon nestled offense and defense and is designed to engage targets in the criteria required to keep silent, flameless protected by enemy troops, also unarmored or lightly armored combat vehicle.
Automatic AC consisted of: barrel to the receiver, pistol grip and stock, silencer with adjustable sights, bolt carrier with gas piston; shutter; revertible mechanism, the impact mechanism; trigger; forearm, gas tube, receiver cover and store.
Automatic machine AS "Val" worked on the principle of powder combustion gases from the bore. Locking also produced a rotating plug for 6 lugs. Trigger striker type was designed for conducting single and automatic fire. My type of fire is mounted at the rear of the trigger guard. Flag Guard, exclusive shot at accidentally pressed the trigger and the barrel when unlatched, displayed on the right side of the receiver above the pistol grip fire control. Handle reloading placed on the right side of the receiver. The sighting device consists of an open sight, calculated on the firing range up to 420 meters and flies in namushnike. Stock is made from plastic box stores-in-line with a capacity of 20 rounds. To speed up the equipment store complete machine has a capacity of 10 rounds of ammunition clips. In contrast to the AK 74, an adapter for connecting the cage to the store was made complete with a holder. To reduce the sound level was used a special device to silent, flameless fire "integrated type."
The design of the AC machine by 70% has been aligned with a sniper rifle VSS, including on the applicable type of sights. But automatic Unlike rifle received a new 20-round magazine (one hundred percent interchangeable with a 10-round magazine from BCC) and the iron frame buttstock, folding to the left side of the receiver, making it more compact and maneuverable. Automatic Speaker comfortable for fighting in confined spaces: in buildings, subways, trenches, etc., with the movements in the bush, bush, and landing in tf; in landing. Speaker of the machine can conduct aimed fire with butt folded. Like the rifle, equipped with automatic day and night sights.
A special automatic speaker with an optical sight PSO-1-1
Cartridges for rifles and machine SCD AS also interchangeable. Compared with a rifle "Vintorez" machine "Shaft" is more adapted for of automatic fire at targets protected by body armor at ranges up to 200 meters — the patron of the joint venture. 6 small bursts of 2-4 shots, on unprotected targets — the patron of the joint venture. 5, in the tense moments of the battle on small distances — longish bursts of 6-8 shots, and when necessary — continuous fire to the consumption of the patrons in the store. Single target is more efficient and economical firing a single lamp. In all cases, the sound of the shot and the flame significantly lowered silencer, making it difficult to determine the position of the enemy gunner. On the reliability of automation, including in difficult criteria, it is not inferior to the famous Kalashnikov assault rifle, and weighs less than a kilogram, which is very important in the fight.
The set includes AC machine carrying case machine, carrying bag and vest sight for accommodation and transportation 6 stores, 2-flares or a skyrocket and knife, 3 hand grenades, a pistol and a spare magazine CAP to it.
Create a sniper rifle VSS and in machine AC was mastered by Tula Arms Factory.
A special automatic speaker with night sight 1 PN93-1 (right side)
Special-purpose weapon — sniper rifle VSS and special machines AU, with the dignity of all past wars and conflicts of the past 30 years, fully deservedly respected not only in the elite special forces units, and in the Russian Armed Forces. At the current time, the BCC rifle used as an additional and very efficient service in intelligence units and airborne infantry units.