10 facts about black holes

1. The first assumption of the existence of black holes made by John Mitchell

Most believe that the discovery of the existence of black holes — the merit of Albert Einstein.

However, Einstein completed his theory in 1916, the year, and John Mitchell thought about this idea way back in 1783-m. She found the application because this English priest did not know what to do.

Mitchell began to develop the theory of black holes, when he took the idea of Newton, according to which light is composed of small material particles called photons. He thought about the motion of the light particles, and came to the conclusion that it depends on the gravitational field of the star, which they leave. He tried to understand what happens to these particles, if the gravitational field is too large, so that the light could leave it.
Mitchell is also the founder of modern seismology. He suggested that the earthquakes are distributed in the earth like waves.

2. They really draw the space around them

Try to space as a rubber sheet. Imagine what the world — this is balls, which put pressure on the sheet. It is deformed and no longer straight lines. This creates a gravitational field, and explains why the planets move around stars.

If the mass of an object increases, the deformation space can be even greater. These additional disturbance increases the force of gravity and speed orbital motion, causing the satellites move around objects faster and faster.

For example, Mercury moves around the sun at a speed of 48 km / s, while the orbital velocity of the stars near the black hole at the center of our galaxy reaches 4800 km / s.

If the force of gravity is strong enough, then the satellite is facing large-sized object.

3. Not all black holes are the same

We usually think that all black holes are essentially the same. But astronomers have recently discovered that they can be divided into several varieties.
There is a rotating black hole, black hole with electric charge, and black holes, including the features of the first two. Ordinary black holes occur by absorption of matter, and a spinning black hole formed by the merger of two of these holes.

These black holes consume much more energy because of increased disturbance space. Charged rotating black hole acts as a particle accelerator.

The black hole, named GRS 1915 +105, located about 35,000 light-years from Earth. It revolves at a speed of 950 revolutions per second.

4. Their density is incredibly high

Black holes should be too massive for the extremely small size to create a large enough gravity to contain the light. For example, if you make a black hole of mass equal to the mass of the Earth, you get a ball with a diameter of 9 mm.
Black hole whose mass is 4 million times the mass of the Sun, can fit in the space between Mercury and the Sun. The black hole at the center of galaxies may have a mass greater than the mass of the sun from 10 to 30 million times.

Such a large mass on such a small space means that black holes have an incredibly high density and the forces acting within them, are also very strong.

5. They are quite noisy

Everything that surrounds the black hole, pulled into the abyss and at the same time accelerating. Event horizon (the boundary of space-time from which the information can not be achieved because of the observer finite speed of light, approx. Mixstuff) accelerates particles to nearly the speed of light.
When crossing the center of the event horizon matter arises gurgle. This sound is a transformation of the energy of motion into sound waves.

In 2003, astronomers using the Chandra recorded sound waves emanating from a supermassive black hole, located at a distance of 250 million light years.

6. Nothing can escape the gravity of their

When something (it could be a planet and the star, and the galaxy, and the particle of light) is close enough to the black hole, the object will inevitably be captured by its gravitational field. If something is acting on an object, say a rocket, stronger gravity of the black hole, it will be able to avoid absorption.

Until then, of course, until it reaches the event horizon. Point, after which leave a black hole is impossible. In order to leave the event horizon, it is necessary to develop a velocity greater than the speed of light, which is impossible.

This is the dark side of the black hole — if the light can not leave it, we will never be able to look inside.

Scientists believe that even a small black hole will tear you to pieces long before you get through the event horizon. The attractive force is greater, the closer you are to the planet, star or a black hole. If you are flying to a black hole feet first, then the force of attraction in your feet will be much greater than in the head. This and tear you to pieces.

7. They slow down time

Light bends around the event horizon, but in the end, he is trapped in oblivion when entering.
You can describe what happens to the clock, if they fall into the black hole and survive there. As you approach the event horizon, they will slow down and eventually stop completely.

This freezing time is due to the gravitational time dilation, which is explained by the theory of relativity. The force of attraction in the black hole is so great that it can slow down time. In terms of hours, so good. Hours lost from sight, while the light from them is still a stretch. The light becomes more red wavelength will increase and as a result it will go beyond the visible spectrum.

8. They are perfect energy producers

Black holes suck in all of the surrounding ground. Inside the black hole is compressed so much that the space between the individual elements of the atoms is compressed, and the result is sub-atomic particles that can fly out. These particles are taken out of the black hole due to the magnetic field lines that cross the event horizon.

Isolation creates energy particles rather effective way. Conversion of mass into energy in this way is 50 times much more efficient than nuclear fusion.

9. They limit the number of stars

Once renowned astrophysicist Carl Sagan said in the universe more stars than grains of sand on the beaches of the world. But it seems that in the universe of 1022 stars.

This number is determined by the number of black holes. Fluxes of particles produced by black holes are expanded to bubbles, which are distributed through the region of star formation. The field of star formation — are areas of gas clouds that can cool and form stars. These streams of particles heated clouds of gas and prevent the appearance of stars.

This means that there is a balance between the number of stars and black hole activity. A very large number of stars in the galaxy are located will make it too hot and explosive for the development of life, but too small number of stars does not contribute to the emergence of life.

10. We are composed of the same material

Some researchers believe that the black holes will help us to create new elements, because they separate matter at the subatomic particles.

These particles are involved in the formation of stars, which in turn leads to the creation of elements heavier than helium, such as iron and carbon, necessary for the formation of rocky planets and life. These elements are part of everything that has mass, and therefore we are.

Category: Astronomy and Space

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