Ability — are the psychological characteristics of a person, the success or failure of acquisition of knowledge, skills, abilities. One of the most difficult questions — about the origins of abilities: they are innate or is it formed at life? Answers that give researchers on these issues are contradictory. You may encounter with statements like: "Musician (mathematician, poet) to be born" and a completely opposite: "Talent — is 1% ability and 99% perspiration." Each perspective has its own evidence.
Abilities — a congenital
1. It is believed that the evidence of innate abilities (ie, they receive through inheritance) is an early manifestation of the child. As you know, in Mozart's musical talent manifested in 3 years, Haydn — in 4, Raphael showed himself as an artist in 8 years.
2. About innate abilities can also speak on the basis of their recurrence in the offspring of prominent people. There are whole dynasty of talented individuals. For example, the Bach family had about 60 musicians, 20 of them — are outstanding. Known theatrical dynasty (Sadowsky), circus (Durovy) dynasty scholars (Yakushkino, Fortunatoy). However, these findings may indicate not so much a biological inheritance, but about the inheritance of certain conditions of life and values that favor the development of a family of quite specific abilities.
3. More rigorous evidence comes from studies using the twin method. Were compared with each other mental performance of identical twins and a pair of brothers and sisters. The correlation parameters in monozygotic pairs was very high, brothers and sisters, it was significantly lower.
4. The results of animal studies using the method of artificial selection have demonstrated the accumulation of genetic predisposition to successful learning.
Abilities can be formed during the life
1. Significantly study conducted by Russian psychologists, which revealed a significantly higher rate of the Vietnamese musical abilities than in Russian. It turned out that in the Vietnamese language pitch has a distinctive feature, and in this function is not Russian. So the Vietnamese musical abilities are dictated by the necessity of language.
2. There are many cases when there are outstanding teachers formed a large group of talented students in size and level of ability completely inexplicable in terms of statistics. One of these outstanding teachers, MP Kravets, claimed that children are incapable does not happen. If lessons are interesting for the child in the form of training and exciting manner, the results of development of abilities will be high.
3. Researchers have identified psychological factors of development of abilities:
— for cognitive development of children must be arranged a certain arrangement of the environment, conditions for the interaction of children and adults had the character of cooperation and collaboration.
— cognitive and intellectual activity of the child must be accompanied by positive emotions. The teacher should mark any progress the child, then the fixation of success and a desire to grow.
— adult child transfers his interest is surprised and pleased with him.
— the child has specific intellectual emotions of doubt, speculation and confidence.
Thus, question the origin of capacity remains: on the one hand, there are natural prerequisites abilities, but how it will manifest depends on the individual human development. In addition, an integral component of abilities is increased motivation.