40 years ago, on the night of 1 to 2 August 1959 in Temirtau Karaganda region unrest began in the middle of the Komsomol — the builders of the Karaganda Metallurgical Plant — known Kazakhstan Magnitogorsk.
The unrest lasted a day or three. When the oppression of their troops were involved from Moscow (Dzerzhinsky Division) and Tashkent, security sad recognizable Karaganda camp (Karlag). According to official data, during clashes with builders forces killed 16 people, injured more than 100. According to unconfirmed reports, the oppression of unrest troops was applied about 10 thousand rounds of ammunition.
Actions in Temirtau occupy a special place in the contemporary history of Kazakhstan. The decision to build the Karaganda metallurgical plant in Temirtau was made in the midst of the second world war in 1943. Earlier, in the first years of the war, Germany had occupied a huge area of the European part of the USSR and the Russian management had to hastily convert thousands of industrial companies in the east. After the loss of coal and metallurgical base in the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog basin of the Ukraine in the USSR there was only one base metal production — in the Urals.
Then the Karaganda coal basin, with its unique coking coal was seen as the creation of the reserve base for the rear of the country in the most profound modern coal and metallurgical base. By 1959, construction got a big scale. The plant built the whole country. Komsomol Central Committee announced the construction of Karmet one of the first Komsomol construction projects. Thousands of Komsomol members from across the country (approximately 80 areas of all the republics of the Union of Russian) arrived in Temirtau and settled in tent cities in the eastern part of the town, not far from the construction site. Besides Russian Komsomol arrived on the scene of a large group of Bulgarian youth movement foremen — Bulgarian counterpart of our Komsomol. Bulgarians settled in the dorms, our homes are not enough. The living conditions were terrible. In the scorching steppe were hundreds of tents army standard. There was virtually nothing: no shops, no recreation areas. But most importantly — had an acute shortage of water. In addition, the Komsomol was much greater than the actual front and work. Many people were not occupied. Construction was carried out extensive method. Unskilled work of many members of the Komsomol, brought from all over the Union, was used very unproductive.
Those who have been in the middle of the steppes of Karaganda summer, knows what the heat and lack of water. In the camp there were several tanks, the water of which was used directly for the production of food, for drinking and washing. Under the sun of this water was more like a kipyatochek. The interest of the Komsomol, who came from a more fertile edges — Georgia, Ukraine, Moldova, Russian Federation — volatilized at the sight. The situation in the camps is uniformly heated.
Specific reason for the event served as a top Temirtau incident specifically with water. In one of the tanks for some reason the water was tainted. Later were that some wags have poured into the tank of ink. Maybe the water is just spoiled. Yet the accumulated irritation immediately find their own way out. Gathered mass, which claimed clarification. Police arrested several of the most active participants in the performance. Then August 1, 1959 by angry mass stormed the building of the regional police department in the eastern part of Temirtau, demanding release of arrested members of the Komsomol. But they had already moved to Karaganda, 30 km from Temirtau. Claimed to return back.
The situation became quite unmanageable. Thousands of young builders komsomo-ltsev from a tent city on the night of 1 to 2 August 1959 made a mess all over the eastern part of Temirtau. Was stormed and ransacked shop near the police station building. Weight rushed to the building of trust "Kazmetallurgstroy" (CCM). There were clashes with the police. Control of the situation was completely lost. Crowds builders smashing the city. Was captured by the second secretary of the Karaganda regional par-TII Enodin. He saved himself by stating that an ordinary engineer. Komsomol activists Karaganda was assembled on alert and guarded dynamite warehouse, which was located halfway from Temirtau in Karaganda.
It should be noted that the riots took part in the main visitors on Komsomol from different parts of the Union of Russian. Local people and Bulgarian members of the Komsomol in the statements did not participate.
August 2 Temirtau came Secretary of the CPSU Leonid Brezhnev, first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan Belyaev, chairman of the Council of Ministers of Kazakhstan Kun, Interior Minister Kabylbaev. In the end, it was decided to use force. The decision perceived Brezhnev. Arriving at this point fighters Dzerzhinsky division of Moscow and soldiers opened fire from Tashkent. Storm were taken by young builders of buildings occupied police station, shops. Were killed, according to official figures, 16 people.
Actions in Temirtau are the only and most large-scale natural disturbances from domestic violence in the history of the Young Communist League and in the history of the USSR. Movement of the All-Union Komsomol construction projects and then took a big swing. Students build teams, different groups of Young Communists built the Baikal-Amur Railway, mastered the virgin land and built facilities across the country. Young people were the most a cheap labor force. The government has always saves up to social and household criteria. At the last North and BAM people lived in trailers.
Lessons Temirtau events in general have been, of course, taken into account. In the seventies, the eighties the government skillfully maintain and monitor interest Komsomol movements. Never again in the history of the USSR was not Communist Youth unrest, similar events in Temirtau. Great attention was paid to the ideological support, the creation of leisure, a common cultural and social activity of the Komsomol. Actively developed the idea of the Komsomol romance. This allowed the state to save on social and domestic handbills new buildings, but there is no recurrence Temirtau events.
In the Temirtau immediately after the oppression of unrest have been the trials of more active participants. Several people were sentenced to death. Once in the town were landed Komsomol and party workers from Karaganda, Almaty and Moscow. The construction of community facilities. Then was built, namely, cinema "Rodina".
Actions in Temirtau did not prevent completion of construction of the Karaganda Metallurgical Combine. With the end of its construction Karaganda has become one of the major coal-metallurgical complexes of the country. The problem was only that it was a complex which needs to ideally worked whole USSR. After the collapse of Kazakhstan received the heritage of the former pride of the Russian industry — Karaganda Metallurgical Plant, built by the untold efforts of the Union of Russian, and the coal mines of Karaganda, with no real ability to make use of their potential.
Kazakhstan itself may be consumed inside the country only 5 percent of the production of the Kazakhstan Magnitogorsk. Everything else he has to sell for export. Cool War ended. Defense complex of the former Soviet Union and in Russia and Kazakhstan was no use. We have witnessed a great catastrophe of generations of Russian people, their colossal superhuman effort without any compensation from the state for the creation of an industrial complex of the former Soviet Union.
Actions in Temirtau in 1959 are notable for another reason. Almost exactly they were the beginning
of many years of political career, first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan Dinmukhamed Kunaeva.
Mikhail Mikhailovich Khristenko.
In August 1959 — driver carpool trust "Kazmetallurgstroy" (CCM).
— I remember those actions. I then worked as a driver in the CCM. At the construction site was a lot of hard Komsomol members from across the country. They all lived in tents. I remember at the tents was written "Odessa-Mama," "Vitebsk on the Dnieper," "Greetings from Tbilisi." Lived, however, they are bad. Bulgarian builders — they, too, were many — were living in boarding hostels, and more in our tents. How many were there, I do not remember, but a lot.
Evening August 1, 1959 I vorachivalsya Temirtau on the truck. With me in the back there were a few ladies. As we passed a tent city in the eastern part of the town, we have come across different groups. In the car started throwing stones — broken glass headlights. We barely muddled through. Ladies screamed — take me, they say, we were in Karaganda. And on the road — the police, no one is allowed. And those members of the Komsomol circle intoxicated stroll. Our carpool destroyed, stolen, in my opinion, 18 vehicles, a fuel tanks poured gryazyuka. In general, a nightmare that was. The fighters were still standing in the structure of the trust MMR, so they sneak into their shot. A gun they seem to have taken to the police station, which was later destroyed.
Kenzhebaev Sagandyk Zhunusovich.
In 1959 — the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Komsomol of Kazakhstan.
— In the period Temirtau events, I was the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Komsomol of Kazakhstan and a member of the Central Committee of Komsomol. At the beginning of my events in Alma-Ata in Kazakhstan and in general was not — I was then in Vienna at the Global Youth Festival. Vyznat the incident has on arrival. Right from Moscow arrived in Temirtau and began to understand the causes of youth performances.
The fact is that at the moment some figures attributed to political events Temirtauskiy temper and treat it as a political action of the working class Temirtau. I believe that this estimate does not correspond to historical reality. The fact that it was a spontaneous action by young people on the basis of the perturbation by the inconveniences that have been made by the local administration in general and leaders of the town of Karaganda. Prior to leaving for the festival with a special note I went in to the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, member of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU Belyaev Nikolay Ilyich. I have been in Temirtau, walked all the tents, workers' quarters, was in the shops, on the construction site — everywhere debated with youth. And all indignant confusion own life and work.
Labor recruitment plan for the construction of Temirtau was exceeded by 30-40% in some places, in the absence of the corresponding field of operations. In addition, the infrastructure was not ready to accept such number of people: there were no outlets, public nutrition, shelter, sufficient drinking water. People lived in tents in tight criteria, and these inconveniences leaders did not send tribute attention.
After a trip to Temirtau I wrote a huge note on the name Belyaev and was with him at the reception. I said that such a situation is fraught with severe consequences. He promised to take critical steps. I left — it happened exactly what we read as a Belyaev. I have this note was saved when appropriate organizational conclusions were made.
Of the Karaganda control survived only the first secretary of the Karaganda regional Komsomol committee Nikolai Davydov. First secretary of the Karaganda regional Pavel Isaev was expelled from the party, he was given a court martial, he went to Sverdlovsk, where he worked as head of production. Later, he became blind because of nerves and suddenly died. Karaganda Economic Council chairman Dmitry G. Anika expelled from the party, they took off from work, gave a tribunal, but he was not convicted.
— Sagandyk Zhunusovich how many people were involved in the construction of the Kazakhstan Magnitogorsk?
— Up to 100 thousand people from all over the Russian Union. The tents at the time of the events Temirtau lived about 15 thousand people along the front of the center. In this case, the practice was that whenever or Isaev Anika went to Moscow and asked to send more young people. And the Central Committee of the Communist Party always satisfy their requests.
— It turns out that this is one of the first buildings in the Union of Communist Youth and the only overall performance Komsomol?
— Yes, it was one of the first construction projects and only performance of youth. After that, were the actions of Novocherkassk, but there were already working. In this case, the discovery of fire in Temirtau ordered by none other like Brezhnev. He was secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. It was comped and Belyaev, and Kuhn, and Isaev, and Anika. When young people took to the streets and, in the views of management, the movement has become unmanageable, particularly Brezhnev gave the instruction to open fire on the speakers.
Although the order to shoot his own, he had this been recognized. And the responsibility for this decision taken by the Minister of Internal Affairs of Kazakhstan, Major General Shyrakbek Kabylbaev. The question is, where is the logic? Is it an ordinary republican minister at the time could give an indication of the opening of fire by the working class? At this point, after so many years, I think, why Brezhnev then showed timidity and did not recognize its responsibility? And I come to the opinion, that if in the top leadership of the party was a struggle for power. Brezhnev was only taken to the Central Committee of the CPSU, he adherent Khrushchev. Khrushchev was still not very consolidated its position, and there was a struggle between factions for power. If Brezhnev said that he gave the indication, it could cause damage to the prestige of Khrushchev — in the sense that specifically Khrushchev's side opened fire on the workers.
— Sagandyk Zhunusovich and who, in your opinion, could then force the Kabylbaeva accept responsibility for that decision?
— Kabylbaeva could push on it and Brezhnev, and Kuhn. Kunayev was then chairman of the Council of Ministers. After a couple of years already under Brezhnev and KUNAEVA, Kabylbaev again returned to the post of Minister of the Interior. Means Kuhn and Brezhnev not forgotten. And in 1959 Kabylbaev was dismissed and condemned.
— Were you at the plenum, when removed Belyaeva?
— Yes, of course. The fact that the actions in Temirtau occasioned in order to remove Belyaev. For this purpose came Brezhnev. In place Belyaeva Brezhnev put Kunaeva. In politics, always coexist interests.
— A Belyaev not listed as a member of the Khrushchev group?
— When he came to us, he was secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and a member of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. He was in disgrace, and it is virtually exiled to Kazakhstan. When conducted so called fight against Khrushchev's anti-Party group of Malenkov, Molotov and others, Belyaev was on the side of Khrushchev. As a result, he became a member of the Bureau. But later changed the balance of power there, and he was sent to us.
— Sagandyk Zhunusovich, and who obey the Komsomol organization on Magnitogorsk?
— Formally, under the Charter of the Komsomol, to us. But the real control was in the hands of Moscow.