May 7, 2012 9:00
Scientists believe that the world of plants, including trees, have senses. Despite the fact that the trees do not have a complex nervous system such as, for example, a human, they can "feel".
When the seed germinates, develops into a plant that blooms and gives the fruit — this means that it is sensitive to environmental conditions. Vegetable boom that occurs in the spring, shows that plants are subject to precise cycles laid down in the genes. Trees are not only tactile sensitivity, which has been known for quite some time (try to squeeze the leaf of the tree and see what happens later), but also the chemical, along with the "feeling" of light and temperature. This way trees can evaluate duration of daylight and temperature, adapting and directing in accordance with this growing.
Rana, stress or illness runs special protective mechanisms. Information about their action and signals on environmental conditions are transferred from one cell to another, from one tree to another, and even from the tree to the other creatures. This information is expressed in movement, the direction of growth and change in metabolism. Touch Any plant responds to the slightest touch. Moreover, there are about 1,000 species of plants, of which almost instantaneous reaction — it's like, carnivorous plants that instantly lock their camera trapping, sensitive plants like mimosa, dropped their leaves, or nettle, stinging hairs fading. In other species of plants, and there are about a quarter of a million, the reaction is not so fast. At the slightest touch, even an insect, plant Sparrmannia opens its flowers, making it possible to cross-pollination.
Some plants of the family of cucumbers to reduce the length of the cutting, increasing in diameter and woody for two days with an easy to rub them. All the trees respond to the physical impact of wind and rain, bending and changing the stiffness of its trunk and branches, to increase stability. Some legumes have a special build-up in the bottom sheet. This authority includes the ability to fast movements (less than a second), in response to touch and change of illumination. Sensitive plant requires about an hour to get back to the original "slow" condition, especially after repeated exposure — training. Darkness is the folding leaf clover and other plants, or, conversely, a blooming nightshade.
Photoreceptors of plants are sensitive not only to the quantity of light received, but also for its quality. Depending on the light a plant changes its position, direction, angle and even growth. Some receptors are sensitive to red, the other to the blue or ultraviolet. They also recognize the dark red and light red color, which is present in daylight. What is it for? Light red color stimulates seed germination and chlorophyll synthesis, but decreases the growth of the stem. A heavy foliage is a surplus of dark red color, and in this case the balance of growth shifted in such a way that the stem (trunk) begins to grow rapidly, to get out of the shadows. Now I understand why the slender flat forest all the trees tend to grow up, and the ones that stand out above all, stop the vertical growth. The same situation happens when the trees are too dense. In nature, competition for light is very useful, but in terms of yields, it is harmful, as takes power plants on the growth of the trunk, rather than the growth of leaves and seeds.
Specialists studying this phenomenon, brought special varieties of plants (for example, some type of tobacco), which do not react to the light of day, constantly increasing their productivity. The element that makes the plant sensitivity to light intensity and the direction of the blue color is called kriptohrom. He is responsible for the process of opening a special time in the leaves through which the wood "breathes" and produces gas exchange. Through these receptors houseplants, if they put in the box, turn the leaves perpendicular to the origin of daylight. First photoreceptors that are sensitive to blue, were discovered in 1993 in a plant Arabidopsi. These receptors are very similar to those that help to see the flies, mice and … man. (That's how!). They also are a special kind of universal biological clock in the living world, synchronizing processes in all living things during the day, forming a so-called circadian rhythm. Kriptohrom present even in bacteria, acting as a protective element of their DNA. The trees he controls, among other things, the growth and flowering. Interesting, but what else does this element, for example, in a man? .. In some "collective" plants, such as lilies, flowering depends on the overall temperature of the plants. Like many other species (from wheat to olives), Lily must survive the winter cold to bloom in spring. And its flowers are very sensitive to temperature variations. Just one degree to flower closed.
The same phenomenon exists in desert plants — where among other things produces a special protein that acts as a protective thermal insulation coatings for flowers and stems of the plant. I am now writing this and am surprised how difficult everything is organized in the plant world, to say nothing about animals … In addition, plants can sense the presence of nutrients in the soil, sending their roots in the right direction. Sprinkle bag nitrate in two meters of the tree — after a while it will be rooted in this place. That's it. for today. I for myself have learned a lot of interesting, I hope it was interesting to you. If you have something to say or ask — welcome to comment. A continuation of the article read tomorrow at the same time.
After "trying out the taste of" chemical traces of the aggressor, the tree begins with him this chemical war. the most sensitive in this regard, the trees provide a solid barrier between the attacker (virus, bacteria or fungus) and intact cells by killing damaged. Chemical signals emitted by the tree will mobilize all its defenses, activating mechanisms in the most remote areas. For example, after the destruction of the moth caterpillars most of their leaves, wood Zeiraphera diniana includes long-term protection mechanism, causing the new leaves grow in small and lacking in nutrients. After a couple of years, the colony of insects die of starvation. Beech is attacked by aphids, begins to produce chemicals that cause impairment of digestion in insects, such itself antipurgen. Pine in the attack of insects gnaw holes in its crust begins to produce large quantities of rubber-like substance, which impairs the further destruction of the cortex. Oak in response to the mistletoe on the trunk begins to produce toxic substances that kill the aggressor.
Currently, there is over 10,000 metabolites plants with toxic or repellent effect, which help the plants against insects. Among these substances — alkaloids, tannins, peptides and terpenes. Even when the tree is in danger, it sends a signal SOS. This phenomenon was first discovered in legumes — when plants begin to attack mites, it produces a special chemical that lures certain insects feeding ticks. Even ordinary maize in case of attack caterpillars produces an enzyme, which attracts a special kind of wasps that lay their larvae in the body attacking the caterpillars. And quite a molecule of saliva tracks to include a signaling mechanism. Another example — the tobacco produces a volatile substance involving another special kind of system when he is attacked by caterpillars of the moth. Moreover, this mechanism is not activated if the tobacco leaves are caterpillars of other species that feed on corn leaves. One chemist conducted the following experiment. He decided to investigate, as in a response to an attack caterpillars. Was placed on a tree a few tracks, the second remained intact. After a while the leaves of the second, pristine wood, he fed another group of caterpillars.
It turned out that after eating its leaves, the caterpillars dramatically slowed its growth — the leaves were for them "tasteless" because of a special material, which has developed a healthy tree, upon a signal from the victim. How did this happen? Both trees have started to produce substances that repel insects. Message from the victim to the pristine tree was transferred with ethylene gas — which is usually formed at damage the fruit. Another tree took this chemical signal, and its leaves began to be produced by a protective substance — tannin, lignin and others. Another way to send the message (rezervnyy!) — Use of acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, which is made in the bark of willow (salix willow means in Latin). Incidentally, a similar method of protection is poplar. When a tree is attacked, and half of protective substances that are produced by the plant are sent to the leaves, as the most vulnerable part of the plant. By the way, another application of this protective mechanism with remote transmission — protection during flowering. Plants in a limited area begin to bloom at the same time to reduce the loss of insects. Here, the principle — not all will eat too much. If the plants are in bloom in turn, they would be easy prey for attackers. Parasitic plants, in turn, often find their victims, "the smell", choosing special.
Plant dodder attacks tomatoes, carrots, onions, citrus fruits, cranberries and even some flowers. It envelops the victim of a continuous layer and thus kills. Previously, scientists believed that the attacker is not looking for a victim, and that the attacks will get, but in 2006, there have been studies that have shown the opposite. Dodder is sensitive chemoreceptors — the cells in which it "sniffs" the victim and begins to grow in her direction. It can even give preference to the most "delicious smelling" copy! When dodder finds a victim, it begins to grow rapidly, wrapping plant, letting the needle in the stem and leaves victims with which robs of water and nutrients. Since dodder seeds have only a small supply of the nutrients they need to quickly find the victim, or they will die. The experiments proved that 80% of the seeds begin to grow in the direction of the tomato, and soon attacked him. If we put the weed seed between tomato and wheat, it is a time to make circular movements, approaching more to the tomato, then in any attack on the poor plant (sorry for the bird).
What about hearing the plants? Many plant lovers claim that they love to listen to some music, the sound of which grow better. Some farmers believe that if the scroll, say, cucumbers and peppers soft music, the yield increase markedly. What can I say? Researchers have not yet been able to refute these allegations, so wish you all come to notice these signs and to be in harmony with nature.