Nearsightedness, or myopia — the leader in the ranking of vision problems. In this disease, the person ceases to clearly distinguish objects at long distances have to squint your eyes to move closer to the text. In this case, eye strain, fatigue, which further increases the negative diopters. What today there are methods to improve visual acuity?
The oldest and most common way to increase vision in myopia. Everyone knows that in low myopia (up to -3.0 diopters) glasses tend not to prescribe for continuous wear. They are used only when necessary because glasses, restoring visual acuity, ocular muscles weaken, and this contributes to myopia.
With more than 3.0 diopters of myopia glasses prescribed for continuous wear, because the vision is reduced to the extent that without glasses can not be without. At high myopia (more than 6.0 diopters) when the doctor prescribes power of the lenses are not full correction, and the so-called correction for portability, ie such that the patient suffers. At the same time, and sees a man in glasses is not 100%. Intolerance full spectacle correction for myopia is related to many factors, but the main — a significant reduction of the image due to the lenses.
It's hard to get used to the glasses with a combination of myopia with astigmatism (that some deviation from the shape of the cornea sphere and ellipsoid approximation to the form.) At the same time appointed sophisticated glasses with cylindrical lenses. A serious problem and correction of anisometropia points (different optical power of the two eyes). Intolerance of full correction in this case is related to the formation of the retinal images of different sizes, that the brain is not able to merge into a single entity. The human brain itself is struggling with this defect, rejecting bad seeing eye to the side (so developed strabismus) or decreasing visual acuity in one eye (developing so-called "lazy eye" or amblyopia). This situation leads to problems that require long-term treatment to restore vision.
Lazy eye is also being developed in young children of preschool age with partial correction of high myopia. Low vision in this case can not be restored, and the success of treatment is better than ever appointed full correction view.
It should be noted that most of these problems successfully solved contact lenses. However, it does not exclude the use of glasses as an additional means of vision correction. Contact lens, Unlike points located directly on the ocular surface and is separated from the front surface of the eye only layer tears. Thanks to the similar refractive index of the material of construction of the contact lens, Tears and corneal eye lens forms with a single optical system. In this system, the eye muscles work in a healthy eye and training is weakened accommodation, which is one of the causes of myopia progression. Thus, the contact lenses with myopia are not only a means of vision correction, but also a means of treatment.
As a means of correcting contact lenses also have a number of significant advantages over glasses:
- Eye tolerated any force of contact lenses, ie, it is possible and permissible complete or almost complete correction of myopia of any degree. The highest degree of myopia, which I had to correct the contact lens was -35.0 diopters. Vision in the lens was 50% of normal, and in points 2%. The cause of an incomplete view of a contact lens was retinal damage caused by myopia.
- Lenses reduce image objects much smaller than the glasses, so things are always bigger in the lenses.
- When two different eye myopia less than the difference in size of the two images on the retina, so you can fully corrected both eyes to get a full vision two eye (Binocular), successfully treat amblyopia and strabismus, and for the timely correction to prevent their development.
- In the lenses wider than the field of view with glasses, more clarity, contrast and flatter image. Patients with mild to moderate myopia, using contact lenses, tell a different quality of life in the lenses over glasses.
- In astigmatism using special (toric) lenses, which provide a higher visual acuity and better tolerability compared with glasses.
- Available today for short-sighted and lenses that change eye color. They just improve mood. And with good spirits and illnesses recede.
What is the danger?
If contact lenses are so good, does it mean that all problems are solved, and the search for new materials are finished? Of course not. In recent years, the market there are new developments in the field of contact lens. Modern contact lenses is easier to pick up, they are better tolerated. However, all this has led to an excessive courage of doctors and patients. Sometimes lenses purchased in optics and in the shops, even without selection. It is harmful and dangerous. What should be done to avoid the possible complications?
- Shape of the lens, its type, the optical power parameters of the material, care should always be selected individually with the necessary specialist office visit contact vision correction.
- Required to comply with the rules of use contact lenses. It is, first of all, the hygiene and proper care.
- When the discomfort, redness of the eyes, any feelings of pain or fatigue should visit a doctor who picked you a lens, and in the absence of complaints seen by a doctor at least twice a year.
- Recommend the use of modern lens, rather than the lens of the old generation. New silicone hydrogel lenses provide a sufficient supply of oxygen to the eye. A frequent planned replacement lenses, or one-day lenses avoid deposits on the lens surface metabolites tears. Modern lenses and solve one of the major problems of ophthalmology, which is considered a "disease of the century", the so-called "dry eye syndrome". Its causes are many: the conditioned air and a poor environment with dusty and smoky air, a computer (sitting at a computer person blinks 4 times less). Is any eye surgery, eye drops and any … including contact lenses. To avoid dry eyes with contact lenses in recent years, new materials with the effect of moisture, special drops continuously retain moisture in the eye, the search for new methods of combating this disease.
Other methods of correction
One of the most widely advocated approaches today is laser vision correction. It has its advantages and disadvantages, developed and improved, like the contact vision correction. However, the operation is an operation. Its results are not always completely predictable and, most importantly, there is no turning back, eyes to the state it was before the surgery. In addition, be aware that changing the shape of the cornea, even with the most modern method does not allow to obtain a "smooth surface of the living eye, created by nature." So even if we get 100 percent of the image quality suffers, and almost always there is a small double vision and Multi objects, circles around the light scattering (at night merges into one big blur light from the headlights of cars on the road). The effect of the operation is calculated according to special programs, but the living eye makes its own adjustments, and after surgery is sometimes necessary to use glasses or contact lenses. And it happens that both are not helping. In a word, daring to surgery, the patient should be aware of the risks.
Today, there are other options that allow short-sighted person to wake up in the morning seeing. First, it is contact lenses, which are advised not to shoot at night. However, the majority of Russian experts do not support this mode of wearing because of the greater risk of developing serious complications.
There are also special lenses that put pressure on the cornea and change its shape during a night's sleep. The effect of this exposure time (if
stop wearing the lenses myopia recovered), and the risk of complications, and there is not really justified. But, in contrast to surgical correction, in which case there is an opportunity to "bounce back" to the state it was in before the start of the method.
Tips short-sighted people
Observe the rules of hygiene. Remember that your eyes need a rest and good working conditions. Try to visit an ophthalmologist who examined the fundus with a wide pupil to identify asymptomatic cracks and tears and in a timely manner to carry out laser coagulation. By the way good to know that laser coagulation should be minimal, gentle. It is not necessary to agree on a massive "preventive" laser coagulation, which is not only effective but not safe.
When selecting the type of correction, remember that it is your choice, but the doctor only helps you to make it. Please read carefully the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Be literate, making a decision. By choosing one or the other method of correction, follow the recommendations given to you, and visit a doctor promptly.
Tamara Abugova, MD, chief medical officer of the company "Optic City"