Phobia — A disorder in which a person experiences a painful fear, forcing him avoid relatively safe objects or situations. All variety of phobias (of which there are about five hundred) is divided into two types: simple and social. Simple — it's the fear of certain objects (or animals). The social phobias include fear of falling in certain situations. For example, fear of crowds, fear of eating in front of others, fear of becoming a target of ridicule.
Once in a situation that causes a phobia, a person develops a state of panic. In the future, anticipating the recurrence of such a situation, it automatically senses fear and begins to avoid her. Panic attacks may be accompanied by disorientation, a sense of unreality of their condition or the external environment. There may be physical sensations — dizziness, loss of balance, palpitations, visual disturbances, hearing, swallowing and breathing. Less common physical symptoms: nausea, stomach pain, problems with urination and defecation, muscle tension, trembling or numbness.
In the phobic situation grows out of control and fear grows stronger as the imagination growing danger. Man increasingly focused on the discomfort caused by the phobic reaction, and less focused on what might calm him down. There is a belief that something terrible is about to happen — death, heart attack, madness. This is the panic state. It is so painful that man trying to avoid any situation of stimulus, including words, images and memories that can trigger a phobic reaction.
Treatment for phobias is to develop the human capacity to meet face to face with the phobic situation and stay in it, but also to persuade him to experience, not intellectually, that situation is not really dangerous. With the individual, gradually increasing complexity of tasks trying to teach the patient to react more strongly to the real calming aspects of the situation and weaker — an imaginary threat.