Non-governmental organization Human Rights Watch (HRW) has announced its intention to make an international coalition that will try to conclude a global international agreement that imposes a comprehensive and proactive ban on arms with artificial intelligence before they are made. By the company to ban military «killer robots», which was launched in the capital of England, have already joined various non-governmental organizations that have participated in the campaign to ban cluster munitions, anti-personnel mines and blinding lasers.
Unlike remote-controlled tanks and whippets, torpedo boats that are still in the 1930s tested in Russian Union, one hundred percent autonomous combat boots, as they say activists will hold the next innate shortcomings that fail to do their deadly unsafe for the world’s population. Most vserasprostranennye hundred percent autonomous systems of the past, such as the Phalanx, which shot down aircraft or missiles approaching the South American warships, had quite a narrow specialization, its niche and actually could not work from any accidental causes or on a civilian population.
But a new generation of combat bots, for example, one hundred percent autonomous UAV Harpy («Harpy») from Israel, has even more dangerous. While the «Harpy» finds and destroys a hundred percent automatic mode only radars, missiles shooting at him in the «fire and forget». But such UAV presentable for the armies of the world and not only for the reason that they can not hack and own land on the airfield, as, presumably, received in 2012 the Iranian military with South American drone.
The most important thing here — it is cheap exploitation combat bots. For example, remote-controlled drone need not only a costly Fri governance, which is perfectly cooked specials, working in shifts, and in noise-connection. In fact, in the case of small size UAV is becoming a major expenditure item. Elimination of this item will allow countries to establish flying combat bots thousandths series without significantly increasing costs for their operation.
«The campaign for a ban-killing robots,» believes that the main problem lies in the fact that such machines still imperfect. They are unable to distinguish between peaceful citizens from terrorists, human one nationality from another (although in fairness it must be said that these people are also guilty of). At the same time, in the modern world war is often carried out in an area where only one random shot could lead to an escalation of violence. In an organization concerned in particular about developments in South Korea, which makes special bot to patrol the border with North Korea. One such error is the bot is capable of causing severe armed conflict. Because there is a reasonable question: is it worth to transfer the case of war and peace for the tribunal software, adequacy and reliability which will not check without human victims.
With all of this in the world and there are more serious issues of the Korean conflict. Widely known case of autumn 1983, when the Russian automatic warning nuclear attack «Eye» has issued a series of wrong signals about U.S. ballistic missile launches. Only the intervention of operational duty, located at KP «Serpukhov-15,» warned the application «retaliatory» strike. After analyzing the «triggers» ICBM (several in a row from one point), Colonel thought, that a possible opponent is not so dumb to start a war so makarom and substituted under retaliate unsuppressed Russian nuclear forces. What could end in this situation, if the system «Eye» was completely offline?
Then it was about the possibility of nuclear war, but there are far more mundane examples. For example, in 2007 in the South African army experienced a catastrophic incident that killed nine soldiers, 14 more people were injured different. What broke was the automatic anti-aircraft guns of the Swiss-German production Oerlikon GDF-005. This instrument Resettled active and passive radar, laser target designation system and can lead to high-spirited fire low-flying targets such as helicopters, airplanes, cruise missiles and UAVs. In automatic mode, used two 35-mm rapid-fire gun.
During the exercises a couple of times this setting fails, until it was decided to consolidate manually by cable and rail fasteners. But at some point fasteners not stand and tree installation began sending polukilogrammovye shells left and right. Gun fell silent, only expending all the ammunition — 500 rounds. Then the South African army spokesman Brigadier General Kwena Mangope said prerequisites failure remains unidentified. According to him, perhaps, the problem could have a mechanical nature. But a number of professionals pointed to a computer malfunction, in this case to establish the cause of the disaster is not likely.
It all looks even more depressing on the background are increasingly emerging reports of the development of yet another battle bot. Not so long ago, the U.S. Air Force conducted test flights shock drone X-47B, taking off from the deck of an aircraft carrier and capable of performing combat puzzle without human assistance. In all this there is already quite long missile air defense system of the «Patriot» who are able to recognize the target and open fire completely automatically. To create a fully autonomous combat vehicles left to do a couple of small steps. These bots can take on many human functions, forever changing our understanding of warfare.
In the current time in the laboratory of the Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Dr. Henrik Christensen conducted tests bot, which tries to find the rebels, who are partisan ways. These studies are funded by well-known defense company BAE. The main objective of this project is to create a bot that is able to produce a study area in which the enemy had taken refuge, a place to put its likely location on the map and collect other information that would assist in the planning of military operations. These bots do not carry any weapons, their main goal — gathering intelligence.
Special for future military technologies Pete Singer, working at the Brookings Institution in Washington, said that the appearance of fighting bots on the battlefield will raise a lot of basic questions. Times in the history of military equipment such moment comes when there is a thing, which leads to a complete change in the situation, said the expert. For example, as was the case with the invention of gunpowder, the emergence of machine guns, nuclear weapons, computers. Battle Bots can also become a revolutionary technology. If all this does not mean their appearance, that will change everything — from combat strategy and ending with the law, ethics and politics.
American Jody Williams, who in 1997 won the Nobel Peace Prize for company campaigns in favor of banning antipersonnel mines, believes that fighting bots that currently are, over time, can be reincarnated as a deadly weapon. According to her, such neutral for the human ear definition as «autonomous combat system» is quite misleading. According to her, it is more logical to call them the killer robots, because killing people, their main task.
At the same time, Dr. Ronald Arkin of the Institute of Technology in Atlanta thinks differently. Arkin is the creator of the concept of the combat system, which is controlled referred ethical supervisor. Such fighting bots are programmed so that must follow the rules of engagement and the principles of international law. According to Ronald Arkin, all screaming and terrified, «Robots villains, killer robots!». But in the current time terrible things make people themselves, acting on the battlefield. Hardness was a companion of all wars on the planet, said the doctor. Arkin believes that the introduction of means will allow to reduce the amount of losses in the midst of the civilian population, which is in the zone of conflict.
Currently, more than the U.S. about 76 countries in the world have their own applets to create combat bots, says the scientist. In these days of a couple of hundred bucks already available UAVs, which is still 2 years reverse was classified. Such technologies are distributed fairly rapidly and globally. An example is the introduction of UAVs, which are used for pinpoint strikes on selected targets in advance, including humans. Currently, the introduction of unmanned drum machines in Afghanistan and Pakistan is already causing debate in the global society. With the spread of fighting bots such debates inevitably will move to the ethical principles of their use.
So maybe combat boots are not necessary at all? Why should they be released? The thing is that with the emergence of massive armies effective action taken separately soldier fell quickly. Soldiers of a 5th East Siberian Regiment during the Russian-Japanese war, holding Jingzhou, fell into the enemy about one of the few times 10-s rifle shots. At the same time, even in the First and Second World War, the average number of shots per hit grown to 10 000 — 50 000. If quite simple — most of the fighter in the mass armies just do not know how to shoot, and over 95% of the commanders of large armies in the world have never not beheld that their subordinates used the sights on your own rifles.
A similar situation has become evident in the artillery and other military branches. So on the Eastern Front on each dead soldier Wehrmacht USSR squandered about 100 artillery shells and mines. With such as «efficiency» recycle their ammunition South American servicemen during World War II and during the Vietnam War. The numerical growth of fighter and frisky progress of military equipment in the twentieth century was accompanied by a decrease of training of those who are trusted weapon.
At the same time autonomous fighting bots is currently shooting as well as allows them to, weather and instrument. This means that their role in the fighting, after debugging software, will lead to a very great loss of personnel of the side that will be deprived of such bots. Present the result of such confrontation is quite simple. If at the moment the army of Western countries are not able to linger for a long time in either Iraq or Afghanistan, because their political control with a bang leave their posts at significant combat losses, after the introduction of martial bots length of stay of occupation troops in various regions of the world will be virtually unlimited. Victim states, which are equipped army such robots actually quite be finished fighting, they will be comparable only with the number of corpses left by the attacks — the only instrument that remains in the hands of militants.
Created by Sergey Yuferev