Venus: Welcome to Hell!
"The planet Venus is surrounded by a noble air atmosphere, this (only not more), what pours about our terrestrial globe" … in 1761, MV Lomonosov found a halo around the disk of the planet and, in contrast to the enlightened European scientists made a very correct conclusion.
Exactly 300 years later, February 12, 1961 from the Baikonur cosmodrome in the cool night sky rose booster 'Lightning', taking everything on the Earth malehankih handmade magic created to study the endless cosmos. After a few hours of automatic interplanetary station (AWS) "Venus-1" set course to the Morning Star. How annoying would it sounds, the first pancake came out lumpy — the connection has been lost with the AMC and the scientific program from failed.
In 1962, Venus swept past the station "Mariner-2", confirming that Venus rotates slowly around its axis in the opposite direction: from the east to the west, and not the other planets from west to east. "Venusian Night" continues 58 Earth days. Venus has no magnetic "umbrella" to protect against harsh gallakticheskih emissions and atmosphere most of the planet is red-hot — perhaps the perfect place to Hell.
The next couple of years, Russian and South American stations are once studied districts Distant planets with the transit line of motion, in the end, in 1966, Russian interplanetary station "Venus-3" suicidal peak pierced the crimson clouds Morning Star and headed for the first of its surface, bringing on Venus pennant USSR.
In June 1967, the Alliance has organized the latest Russian expedition to Venus — resisting the machine had to make Myagenko approach and conduct studies of the planet surface. Months-long flight went according to plan — the "Venus-4", which is stalled in the atmosphere of Venus, the parachute opened, he went telemetry data stream … The lander was crushed at an altitude of 28 km — the pressure of the Venusian atmosphere exceeded the estimated 20 atmospheres. There was absolutely revised model of the atmosphere — according to data acquired with the "Venus-4", the pressure at the surface should reach 90-100 earth atmosphere (at a depth of 1 kilometer under water — the man does not even help out a heavy diving equipment)!
Over the next 10 years surface Venus landed a landing battalion — 8 interplanetary probes series "Venus." One of the latest AMC — "Venera-13", worked on the surface of 127 minutes in an environment with a temperature of 457 ° C and at a pressure of 93 atm. During this time the station has transmitted to Earth color panoramic photo Venusian landscape and exclusive recording from another planet. Groans of tormented sinners to her there, but heard the distant rumble of thunder.
Last Russian satellites visited Venus in 1984 — two machine series "Vega" studied the Venusian atmosphere by balloons. Amazing airships during the 2-day drifted at an altitude of 50 km, enjoying the lovely weather (pressure of 0.5 atm., Temperature 40 ° C) and a beautiful view of flashes of lightning on the night side of the planet. Then they were blown away and fell into a fiery abyss.
Baton on the study of Venus took NASA — South American researchers have preferred not to go into a hellish atmosphere of the Morning Star, studying Venus from orbit. Particularly distinguished probe "Magellan" — from 1990 to 1994, he conducted a detailed mapping of the entire surface of the planet.
Swimming canceled. Water temperature minus 180 ° C.
In August 1999, above the earth hangs a terrible threat — around our planet at a speed of 19 km / s swept probe "Cassini", launched two years back to Saturn. As at least some apparatus for the study of deep sky, "Cassini" gaining the appropriate speed through gravity maneuvers — first flew probe to Venus, where received a powerful impetus to the overclocking, returned to Earth from their home planet got another boost and headed to Jupiter. Finally, in 2004, "Cassini" turned into an artificial satellite of Saturn, is actually not always including the engine for their own long journey.
Gallakticheskaya balancing act has caused a storm of protest among the "green": for error in the calculation of a thousandth of a percent could lead to disaster. Speeding probe weighing about 6 tons as a flaming meteor crashed into the surface of the Earth would be, with all this extraordinary concern is the presence on board of 33 kg of plutonium. But everything went smoothly — "Cassini" up to hundreds of meters proparhal above the Earth at an altitude of 1200 km.
For the past eight years, "Cassini" specifically examined the system of rings and moons of Saturn. Mission extended to 2017, with all this considered the most exotic version of the forthcoming introduction of the probe — from research Uranus and Neptune, before the collision with Mercury … what a shame it did not sound in the middle of researchers has overcome the most sensible proposal — to continue to study Saturn.
One of the main room was enchanting programs from landing probe "Huygens" on Saturn's moon Titan. This heavenly body attracts scientists have long — even during missions, "Pioneer" and "Voyager" was revealed that naikrupneyshy Saturn (2 times larger than the Moon) has a strong atmosphere with a high content of organic matter. Naturally, the Titan is very far from the Sun, but … suddenly it are alien life forms?
AMC's "Cassini" separated small "tablet" and disappeared into the clouds of Titan. Descent "Huygens" in Titan's atmosphere was a real fall in the abyss of orange — the scientists until the last moment to wonder, where will spank probe: in the icy ocean of methane or watery, though on a hard surface.
"Huygens' landing on the coast of methane ocean, deep in the sand and watery methane gryazyuka. The brave scout in 4 hours led to this report strshnogo the world — until such time as a repeater "Cassini" disappeared over the horizon. During this time, he managed to pass 474 MB disk imaging, including the sound of the wind on Titan. Exclusive audio recording exclusively for the readers of "Military Review":
Aerial clearly showed how the methane flow of the river and in the ocean of liquefied natural gas floating ice of frozen ammonia. In the dark orange just looked through the icy mountains adds an apocalyptic picture uninterrupted dark methane rain.
But scientists from NASA and ESA pleasure to come back there again. The only thing that scares them — it's not methane rain, and the price of the project. Heck, for the sake of such images, personally I am ready to invest some of their own funds. And what think about it pochetaemye readers?
As long as our ships ply the Grand Theatre …
…Japanese interplanetary probe "Hayabusa" (peregrine Jap.) landing with a fence made of soil on the asteroid Itokawa. Three times the unit nearer to the surface of a celestial body malehankih (transverse dimension of about 500 meters), and every time something for yourself breaking open. In the end, out of service propulsion system, and the delivery of soil to Earth has become problematical. But clever people of the country of the rising sun did not panic — it's nothing in space do not just disappear. Three years later, in 2009, when disorientated "Hayabusa" took a lucrative position in relation to Earth, spices were able to restart the ion engine, and the capsule with the standards of earth asteroid Itokawa has been successfully delivered to their home planetoid. Instead, the asteroid was left duralumin plate with data on planet Earth and that memorable landing. I'm afraid that the aliens will not be able to make out anything in Japanese characters.
One of the research programs from Fri "Hayabusa" was to study the asteroid with the miracle of Japanese robotics — a small probe MINERVA weighing only 519 grams, the equipped 3-same malehankih cameras. The Japanese realized the trouble — after separating the probe had disappeared. In general, it is clear where: flew into space after a bad bounce. Gravity is the asteroid Itokawa is very weak to keep the body of this size. In all this history attracts me one detail: the price of a small probe MINERVA was 10 million dollars. Maybe we should offer the people of the country of the rising sun their services — even in Skolkovo such apparatus, assembled from a mobile phone would have cost half the price.
And Mars will be apple blossom …
— As the sun? We'll burn it.
— Do you think we have here in the Politburo fool sits? Fly night!
Human civilization for 50 years gallakticheskoy era was able to visit the surface 5 of the heavenly bodies: the Moon, Venus, Mars, Titan and the asteroid Itokawa, plus scorched in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter probe "Galileo". And every time we were not expecting too far hospitality: a dead and dusty moon, as red-hot Venus, deadly cold and dark orange on Titan. On the probability of landing on the surface of the giant planets strshnyh no desire to even think — even more so, so far it is not clear whether their general hard surface. The man does not even be able to get closer to Jupiter — when flying through a huge planet's radiation belts gallaktichesky device "Galileo" has received 25 lethal doses of radiation a person. In principle, no sufficient space locations, even applicable for automatic planting machines.
The only celestial body, more or less suitable for a person can only be Mars — it is no coincidence so often visit the South American probes 11 expeditions since 1996. On Mars, fully adequate range of temperatures from — 153 ° C in winter to +20 ° C in the summer on the equator. Wind speed never exceed a few 10 of meters per second (for comparison: the clouds in the atmosphere of Saturn's move at a speed of 500 m / s). No seismic activity — planetka died many years ago. Provided indirect evidence of water ice. That is, all have the right conditions for life.
The only discrepancy is very rarefied atmosphere — corresponds to the Earth's stratosphere at an altitude of 40 km. Walk on the surface of Mars without a spacesuit gallakticheskogo lead to instant death. Moreover, 95% of the atmosphere comprises carbon dioxide, oxygen actually available. As the saying goes, and thank you for that.
In the outer area of the solar system, beyond the orbit of Mars, in particular, do not rely on that — terrible 4 gas giants and Pluto unknown, lost in the outskirts of the solar system (we have up to now there is not even about the image of the planet in 2015 in the districts of Pluto would probe " New Horizons ", and then, maybe, we will learn a lot of exciting).
The only people who can represent the enthusiasm for the man — satellites Planets-giants. Four "Galilean" satellites, Titan, moon of Neptune Triton … Among them come across a truly unique standards, for example, another hellish place in the solar system — Jupiter's moon Io. Mighty Jupiter's gravity as Io shakes his 400 without annoying volcanoes spewed lava flows, and the atmosphere is filled with sulfur dioxide.
Together with the fact another Jupiter — Europe — one of the main contenders for the presence of extraterrestrial life. Scientists believe a 100 km ice crust hides a big warm ocean, heated by internal sources. It is a pity that the bold expedition Jupiter Icy Moon NASA postponed for an indefinite period of time — it would be very curious to drill the ice and find out what's hiding inside Europe.
All the same should apply very neatly to the calls Tsiolkovsky hurry to leave the earth a cradle and settle in the vast cosmos. As it turned out, it's cold out there and no we did not expect.