House-carving. Ancient Slavic characters

Sacred sign for the sun and its course, birds and horses — carriers of the sun, the earth, the world tree, goddesses, dragons night, the sky and the air moisture reserves and fertility — all this, on the one hand, was to protect the house and its inhabitants from evil and dangers — so focused on the holes, enter the house — such as doors and windows. So it happened that the trim, closing the gap between the door frame and the wall of the house, except for protection from cold and drafts, had to defend even the intangible evil.

Universally diffused danger was "opposed to the ubiquity of sunlight, while emphasized regularity inevitably comes the sun to a new day with a morning dawn" (BA Rybakov)

On the other hand, the image the world — from the apex to the threshold and the gate — the house of mirokosmom, reflecting the macrocosm, it fits into the world, was to ensure harmony, harmony with the world, and hence prosperity. Thus, house carving originally carried a dual function — protecting and ensuring the well-being, and only then, with a certain secularization outlook appeared aesthetic function, the thread would like to emulate the city stucco, or, in earlier samples, white stone carved temples, or in the case comes to the Volga region — ship thread. However, if we look closely at the ship and white stone carvings, then it also laid the sacred meaning, using sacred symbols and themes that are common to many cultures.

Fishermen at work building a chain stvih succession of sacred symbols, used in protective spell-view, from the Stone Age to the ethnographic data. There are people who do not agree with this approach, considering. that it is impossible to build such a straight line. However, from our point of view, one can not deny the sustainable use of certain characters throughout almost all of human history, this, of course varied shades of meaning, changing field of use. The presence of protective ornamentation of houses and household items excavated material say Tripoli culture. Fragments house carving were discovered during the excavation of ancient Kiev and Novgorod. Historical sources say on the existence of threads in. Unfortunately, the tree — not very durable, so really hard to build a continuous chain between material excavated material, the Middle Ages and the mass of ethnographic specimens, belonging mainly to the 19th and 20th centuries, and experienced the influence of urban culture.

At the oldest samples, we can find almost all the traditional view of the world, more modern designs tend to be more ornamental, however, and they are included sacred symbols.

The traditional view of the world is different from the familiar from the scientific world. In general, it is divided into the upper world of the world — the world of the sky, the middle world — the earth's surface and lower — underground — world. However, some cultures view of the underworld may be missing. In the center of the world is the world tree, whose roots go back to the underworld, and the crown — the top, it is the interface between the worlds. The sun moves across the sky above the earth, and at night — under the ground to the underground river (sea), or, respectively, swallows and spews pangolin. In the upper world are also "abyss of heaven" — the top, the celestial waters that pour down rain-bearing crops. Existed as an idea that falls from the sky, not only rain, but also the game. The mistress of the sky at different times, there were two celestial deer (elk), poluzhenschina — poluolenihi, two women with antlers. Only later appear masculine deity

BA Fishermen: "Geocentric view of the daily path of the sun across the sky on horses (or swans), and the Night the way through the underground ocean water birds emerged as one might think in the Bronze Age, when the vessels of the dead who went underground, night world down to the bottom depicted night, underground sun "

These characters and stories, with all the diversity brownie thread, not even conscious media culture can still be found not only in villages but also in the private sector of the city. Performance style can be quite different, and can, on the contrary — it seems, because the threads of the houses served "brigades" masters living latrine fishing.

Of the remaining elements of the house carving often attract attention and kept it trim, although photographic images, of course, you need to pay attention to the full range of house-thread, including gates.

Draw conclusions about the georeferencing te various plots and characters (not typical for the Volga ship thread) is difficult due to a number of circumstances, however, in our opinion, deserves attention theory BA Rybakov of Merya, and more — Finno-Ugric influence on the image on the casings of certain scenes.

Fishermen rather conventional divides frames into three groups — the first (denoted as "Solar" includes frames dominated by sun signs, follow the same defensive system, which was used for the house as a whole.

The other two, he pays more attention, linking certain types of casings with a history of the development of the Slavic tribes of their new territories, and contacts with the Finno-Ugric.

Group of frames, which can be roughly described as "agrarian" — "a composition with two rozhanits" typical samples — from Yaroslavl Volga. Feature is the presence of a composition Rybakov semicircle or gable cover in the middle of the upper cornice and two figures on the sides of the semicircle. Inside the semicircle-sky — radiant sunrise. Above the sun in an arc depicting "abyss of heaven" in the form of wavy or zigzag lines. The sun could be depicted as a circle with four cross located within the circle of Krynn-sprouts. On both sides of the "sky" is located two stylized female figures with symbols of plant fertility. The female figure may be as well-read, and highly stylized, jump in floral design, while it seems to be pregnant or germ vnutiri great shape fits smaller. Fishermen believes this — two Rozhanitsy, two archaic goddess of fertility and fertility.

The third group of casings — conventionally called "Princess Frog — Lady animals."

This is how the third group Rybakov trims: this "group of songs on the casings is different from the previous, first, the lack of sky (cornice flat, horizontal), and secondly, the lack of related firmament" abyss of heaven ", and thirdly — the presence of only one central figure, sometimes this rozhanits previous group, and sometimes drastically different, and fourth — the presence of various animals around the average figure. The idea of such a composition is quite different than in the previous group. It was felt the desire to convey a picture of an agricultural world with its water skies, sun and moving two rozhanits generously equipped only agrarian symbols. Here, more bestial element not always shown vegetable symbols of fertility, and the central figure is similar to the more archaic "mistress of animals" than the female agricultural deity. "

According to Rybakov, a composition from the heavens, "the abyss of heaven" and two rozhanits, encountered mainly in the Volga in the Yaroslavl and Kostroma regions to Kineshma inclusive. Composition with a figure and animals occurs mainly in the more southern regions (Ivanovo, Vladimir), but partially penetrates the Kostroma Volga.

According to the historical and archaeological evidence, between the Volga and Klyazma going contact and fusion — Slavic and Finno-Ugric measure. With the meeting of Meria and Slavs Rybakov svyayzvaet tale of the Frog Princess, Vasilisa the Beautiful, Lady animals. Slavs of Novgorod on the Volga are Slovenia, Merya element gravitated to Klyazma where Slavic colonization conducted Kriviches.

Casings from the heavens, "the abyss of heaven" and two rozhanits especially common on the huts of the Yaroslavl region Rybakov connects with Slovenian Novgorod colonization, referring to the fact that in medieval Novgorod there were complex compositions with the image of wavy "abyss of heaven" and the sun moving across the sky by showing its three positions was also known.

Another system invoking the pattern above the windows on the one goddess, surrounded by animals, is common where in X-XII centuries. Merya tribes lived, creators of special zoomorphic style jewelry, which, apart from the central human figure, representing the various animals and birds: horses, bulls, stags, roosters, geese, and ducks. According to Rybakov, geographical area casings XIX century. with the animals and with the central female figure in a composition coincides rather precisely with the region sharing the ancient zoomorphic pendants with frog's legs, and,. in all likelihood, this area Merya retained many features of the local Finno-Ugric world. However, as the fishermen, "both cases, security windows ghouls and navy were attributed to the image of the world: Russian, farming, alternative presented volumetric three-dimensional space of heaven and Merya option — a planar, peculiar hunting views, the way the earth, populated with animals and birds . It is only natural that over time this archaic pattern entered purely agricultural Slavic symbols of fertility in the form of buds, shoot. "

We can add that on some trims, in areas of the Finno-ugrskogo influence, can be found not only images frog legs, but the actual shapes of frogs … In addition, across paired image-Gospodarikov snakes, which were also associated with water and the protection of home .

It is impossible to give an exhaustive classification now trims on symbolism and stories. The whole house-carving requires fotograph to be stored at least in the pictures, it is very desirable Maskimalno accurate georeferencing. Unfortunately, trim and thread, especially the old, outgoing nature is, in many ways is not well studied and recorded.

Stable images, symbols and stories we can find in house thread on spinning wheels, dishes, tools, in embroidery and painting. This list is not exhaustive, the meaning of many characters, you can more or less do it only in the context.

Symbols

Rhombus with points — Sign seeded field. A sign of fertility
Rhombus, shaded rectangle — Designation of land
Point — the seed, "commas" — germinating seed.
Rays in a circle, circles, crosses — a solar sign rising or setting sun can be shown in a semicircle, running Sun — sikrivlennye line inside the circle or volutes.
A six-mark in a circle — Thunder sign
Crosses — Fire signs
Large circle filled with ornaments — Designation of the sky, white light — mainly in the spinning wheels
Wavy lines — Signs of water (terrestrial and celestial abyss), rain. Water — the celestial symbolism of fertility, harvest, and the way "to the light" boundary between the worlds
Tree, "Tree" — A sign of the world tree
Horse — a symbol of the sun, the carrier of the sun across the sky daylight
Duck — the carrier of the sun at night
Female figure — female deity, may be present in the plots of the arrival of spring, motherhood, on the subjects of women's employment, the casings — protectress and.
Horny woman — goddess rozhanits, transformed the image of the heavenly deer — the giver of wealth
Bird — a fiery solar symbolism can also be a carrier or a symbol of the soul, a pair of birds — including — a symbol of marriage
Very stylized anthropomorphic figure carved in house — Perfume — house keepers, the spirits of ancestors
Deer — Deer celestial goddess, giver of blessings
Bear — an ancient object of worship was identified with Welles ("cattle god") — giver of wealth and prosperity, and later — the owner of the forest.
Sign of the snake has to do with water
Solar symbols — in addition to his solar signs — for example, Rybakov, a bird with outstretched wings) — noon.

House with carvings. Overview. On towels visible thunder marks, sun, earth, rain. Roof — horse — horse. To hu — carving depicting water. (Novgorod province, museum Vitoslavlice).

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