Interaction and merging galaxies, as it happens?

Galaxy mammals? Chny Way, also known as simply Gala? Ktika (capital) — a giant star system, in which the solar system, all visible to the naked eye, individual stars, as well as a huge number of stars, merging together and observed in the form of the Milky Way .

Milky Way — one of the many galaxies of the universe. Is a barred spiral galaxy type SBbc Hubble classification, and with the Andromeda galaxy (M31) and the Triangulum Galaxy (M33), as well as several smaller satellite galaxies form the Local Group, which, in turn, is part of the Virgo supercluster.


Milky Way (computer model). Barred spiral galaxy. Dominated by two of the four branches

The word "gala? Ktika" (ancient Greek.???) Is derived from the Greek name of our galaxy (????? Means "milky ring" — a description observed phenomena in the night sky)


In the middle of the galaxy bulge is called bulge (born bulge — thickening) is about 8000 parsecs across. In the center of the galaxy, apparently, is a supermassive black hole (Sagittarius A *), around which, presumably, a spinning black hole of average weight. Their combined gravitational effects on nearby stars makes the latest move in an unusual path D0% 9C% D0% BB% D0% B5% D1% 87% D0% BD% D1% 8B% D0% B9_% D0% 9F% D1% 83% D1 % 82% D1% 8C

The central black hole (TSCHD, CA) in the nuclei of galaxies can emit in the direction generally normal to the galactic plane. In the case of our galaxy where the core presumably the two black holes are (radiation) can be more complicated, not fully study the spatial and energy. characteristics.


Image obtained with a telescope "Hubble": active galaxy M87. At the core of the galaxy, presumably, is a black hole. The picture shows a jet-minded focus on the radiation length of about 5000 light years

For example recently discovered that:

Scientists have discovered a range of emission from a black hole in our galaxy

An international team of astronomers from China, Russia and Taiwan to explain the origin of gamma-giant bubbles coming out of the center of our galaxy and perpendicular to the plane of the main disk.

These bubbles were found in November 2010, the cosmic gamma-ray telescope Fermi, but still have their origin remained a complete mystery.

Giant bubbles — each one has a length of about 25 thousand light years, which is almost the radius of the Milky Way. Drawing on the theoretical conclusions of Vladimir Dogiel of the Physics Institute of RAS, scientists have shown that the gamma-ray emission comes from the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy and is caused by the fact that it absorbs the star.

The authors believe that this hole every three million years captures about one hundred stars, with half their weight she eats, and half with the force pushing up the star will have a fatal event horizon in the form of hot plasma. Plasma encounters with electrons, photons are spewing, and the result is a constantly expanding halo which the telescope and saw a "farm".

Lead researcher KS Cheng, said that the energy of a shock wave from the recurrent falling stars on a black sverhdyru exceeds the energy of the shock wave from the supernova about a hundred times, and the process is similar in theory to the behavior of the solar wind emanating from the our star, although the energy scales of the two is, of course, are not comparable.

whenever there is a new theory, immediately arise and objections. In this case they have too — a number of scientists says that such bubbles can occur in the absorption of the black hole are not stars, interstellar gas, and small objects. But even they admit the theoretical soundness of conclusions Sino-Russian-Taiwanese group.

Astronomers point out that the findings of the truth which they believe still preliminary. "The work is going — says Chen. — After 6-9 months we will have a fully modeled map of gamma radiation in the halo, and we can compare it with the observed data."

Most important findings of giant bubbles in the Milky Way can be compared with the revision of its card sleeves or the open bar (Figure NASA / Goddard Space Flight Center).

Doug Finkbiner (Doug Finkbeiner) of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) first revealed strange formation in the data set. The astronomer said: "We see two gamma-emitting bubbles that extend to 25,000 light-years north and south of the galactic center. We do not fully understand their nature or origin. "

Previous reviews were unable to identify these entities because of the diffuse galactic gamma radiation. It is generated when electrons moving at nearly the speed encounter with photons. This background fills the sky. He and prevents bubbles consider in detail.

But now scientists have used high sensitivity Fermi telescope and also a more accurate model of diffuse radiation, which allowed him to deduct from the total flow of data. So on a map of the galaxy, and there were two huge spots with well-rounded edges. Bubbles give more energetic gamma-ray emissions than conventional background.

Examples of these processes, scientists have observed in other galaxies. Possible, and our own could boast anything like the past. According to astronomers, the age of the gamma-bubbles — a few million years. (An article about the discovery will be released in Astrophysical Journal.)

Theoretically, we can assume that our galaxy was formed by the merger of two galaxies. And in the distant future, we have another merger — Anromedy with Galaxy (M31, NGC 224) — both galaxies and the neighbor is their convergence.

M31 — a spiral galaxy of type Sb. This coming to the Milky Way is a large galaxy in the constellation Andromeda and is removed from us, at last count, at a distance of 2.52 million light years.
Galactic plane is tilted toward us at 15 °. Radial velocity of the galaxy defined American astronomer Vesto Slipher in 1912. Using spectral analysis, he calculated that the spiral galaxy M31 is moving toward the Sun at a speed of about 300 km / s. Determine the direction of the Sun in the Milky Way, astronomers discovered that the Andromeda Galaxy and the Milky Way are approaching each other at a speed of 100-140 km / s. Accordingly, the collision of two galactic systems happens in about 3.4 billion years old. However, they both are likely to merge into one large galaxy.

For example:

Interacting SMG 123616.1 +621513. Submillimeter Galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field-North

Interacting galaxies. Hubble Photos

Interacting galaxies. Hubble Photos

The article below provides a computer simulation slyaniya two galaxies with massive black holes at the centers: 

An international team of scientists simulated the collision of galaxies and merging supermassive black holes, and calculated the conditions required to test Einstein's theory, according to EurekAlert. "We found that the gas plays a significant role in the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes," — says the head of research, Dr Stelios Kazantsidis (Stelios Kazantzidis) from the University of Chicago.

Education "tidal tails" of the merger of galaxies (simulation results)

 The results obtained by the group of Dr. Kazantsidisa, are of great interest to the space station mission LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), which NASA plans to launch in 2015 for the study of the early universe in order to detect gravitational waves. Gravitational waves, predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity, so far not yet been discovered. The strongest source of gravitational waves in the universe are colliding supermassive black holes.

Now our galaxy is moving quietly alone in space, but one day, according to the theoretical predictions of astronomers, it will face with its closest neighbor — the Andromeda nebula. The Milky Way galaxy was a convenient model for modeling the merger of supermassive black holes. The group of Dr. Kazantsidisa calculated collision 25 pairs of galaxies to determine the key factors that lead to the merging of black holes.

For the black hole merger is necessary to first merged galaxies in which they reside. If the galaxies contain little gas, the possibility of the merger will depend on their structure. But when two galaxies collide, containing a large amount of gas, it usually follows a merger of supermassive black holes. When two galaxies begin to collide, the gas loses energy and falls within the galactic nucleus, resulting in galactic nuclei are more dense and stable. When the nuclei merge, supermassive black holes inside them, merge, too. If the nuclei are destroyed, the merger does not happen.

The scientists were also able to get the effects that astronomers observe merging galaxies. The most notable of these is the formation of the so-called "tidal tails" — streams of stars and gas, which are formed by the collision of galaxies by strong tidal forces.

Simulation of galaxy mergers

The group of Dr. Kazantsidisa currently working to improve the model and increase the accuracy of calculations.


Next, bring additional material:

Colliding Spiral Galaxies NGC 3808A and NGC 3808B (Arp 87). Photo telescope Hubble.

NGC 6621/NGC 6622 (Arp 81), Spiral galaxies within 100 million years after the collision. Photo telescope Hubble.

Ring-shaped galaxies can be formed after the passage of the companion disc to the next galaxy. Gravitational wave in this case casts interstellar matter first to the center and then to the periphery, forming a gigantic ring.

Vzaimodeymtvuyuschie galaxy Arp 148 (Mayall's Object)

Galaxies with jets

These systems of stars eject matter from its active nucleus. Jets themselves look like a jet of radiation. In the case of IC 803 (Arp 149) and NGC 7609 (Arp 150) jets are only part of shapeless structure generated by the gravitational interaction of galaxies. In Arp 151 and M87 (Arp 152) jets, however, are the ionized gas emitted into the environment active nucleus containing a supermassive black hole. These jets, sometimes called relativistic, or radio jets — powerful sources of synchrotron radiation, especially at the frequency of the radio waves.

Galaxies with dust lanes (with absorptsiey) covering part of the disk. All of them came after the catastrophic collision of two galaxies. NGC 520 (Arp 157) — one of the best examples of the average value of collision of stellar systems, where the process involves only discs, but not the kernel. Centaurus A (Arp 153) and NGC 1316 (Arp 154) — two elliptical galaxies with very unusual dust lane in the center. Their kinematics and structure of the show at the recent collision process.

On this basis, our galaxy also has traces of absorption.

Colliding galaxies NGC 520 (Arp 157).

Galaxies with amorphous spiral arms


Most of these galaxies are the remnants of the merger. "Amorphous spiral arms" appeared in them as a result of this process.

The spiral galaxy NGC 7252 (Arp 226).

From the catalog of peculiar galaxies created by Halton Arp


Of an overall review and simulation can be concluded that our Galaxy has all the features merge in the past. And in the future, according to various estimates, from 2.5 to 4.5 billion years waiting for a merger with the more massive spiral galaxy Andromeda. We can also assume that the final motion vector will change as the mass of M31 more then this vector after adding the vector of motion of our galaxy will still have a direction close to the direction which now has the Andromeda Galaxy.

You can also suggest on the basis of the currently available data in the collision of galaxies in the background of the collapse near the zones of interaction is the process of birth of new stars (to replace the collapsing) and the process is far-reaching.

Perhaps now existing in the same motion vector is the resultant of a larger post-merger (with more massive black holes) galaxies with more pronounced sleeves and smaller galaxy with a smaller black hole in the center with less contrasting sleeves in the present state of our Galaxy.

You can imagine that it is quite likely option when the merger of two galaxies yet (on the example of our galaxy) does not lead to a full merger of the central black hole and forms a pair like that as a binary star. As a result, the central black holes (TSCHD) merging galaxies can retain the starting torque. That is absolutely not necessary TSCHD will have the same direction and torques.

Sleeves smaller galaxy eventually move to a system more massive TSCHD and TSCHD smaller galaxy rotates around a larger and more massive TSCHD or "central sun" in the center forming a bulge in the center of our galaxy.

Hence it is likely that the axis of rotation of the small TSCHD can cross the galactic plane. The passage of the sun through the flux TSCHD called galactic shift. A matching and tilt of the Earth on the lines of Leia otnostitelno quasars in our Galaxy — named pretsissionnym alignment. According to some sources, we just go into this era.

Category: Astronomy and Space

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