Since 1951, adopted Russian Army was officially adopted on 9-mm PM, which up to now properly serve people in uniform.
— Remove from the fuse!
— The gate!
Hear the gate, then the sounds of a military man does not confuse with any other — controlling descent and staging gun safety latch. As the handle is inserted equipped shop, gun fits into the holster.
PM — regular and reliable tool of war. But far not all know that this year, "Makarov" is celebrating its anniversary — sixty years ago, it was officially adopted for the Russian Army.
Like the Kalashnikov rifle, the PM has long since become a legendary weapon. Makarov pistol produced almost half a century, only in Russian Union have made it more than 2-million. PM is manufactured in Germany, Yugoslavia, China and many countries. In general, let's start from the beginning.
Otshumeli last volleys majestically Russian war, which is popular in small tool steel sub-machine guns, namely PCA (Shpagin) and PPP (Sudaev). Massive and rapid-fire, they took advantage of the love not only enlisted men, and officers.
Once common in construction and scheduled for quite a powerful patron, but a massive and somewhat cranky (for example, because of the design features, the lack of protection — a fall on a hard surface could occur accidental discharge) 7.62 mm self-loading pistol TT (Tula Tokarev ), which was in service from 1933, obviously out of date, and it decided to change more advanced personal weapon.
By the end of 1945 have been developed tactical and technical requirements and a competition pistols at the ready 2-gauges — 7.65 mm and 9mm. They should be light and more than small-sized than the TT, and the choice of a few large in comparison with the "Tokarev" (7.62 mm) caliber 9 mm caused by the fact that by that time had already been drawn up by the cartridge, which, according to experts was effective in close combat — the bigger the diameter of the ball is not "sews" the enemy through and through, and "throws" it, and means disables the first shot. The final decision on the caliber of personal weapons postponed for later, when the tests will be prototypes.
In autumn 1947, were the first proving ground tests of pistols, which was presented as known at the time the designers (in parentheses next caliber given samples) — Paul Voevodin (9mm), Sergei Korovin (7.65-mm) I.Rakov (7.65 mm), Sergey Simonov, more recognizable as a designer SKS semi-automatic carbine, Constantine Baryshev (9 mm), and little-known Nikolai Makarov (7, 65-mm and 9 mm), Anatoly Klimov and Alexander Lobanov (7.65 mm).
According to the principle acts of automation — the introduction of the recoil free slide — they looked like on design features — different. For comparison with these guns tested zabugornye Browning M1910/22, Walther PP, Sauer M38H (7,65-mm), Beretta M34, CZ 38 (9 mm), and the control remained a prototype is the same CT.
We will not go into the details of the tests — they are fascinating, first, spices. We note only that the most reliable and "the most tenacious" were found 7.65 mm Makarov pistols and Korovin and 9 mm pistols Makarova and Baryshev. "Makarov" was a regular in structure and in the service was 27 parts (7.65-mm standard — 25), his opponent — for 10 more. Although the gun was Barishev better accuracy of fire, and out of it faster was made the first shot, all the same, "Makarov" eclipsed him in the act of automation reliability. According to tests fighting properties 9mm cartridges recognized best, the designers offered in a short time to remove the identified deficiencies.
Regular tests were held in the spring of 1948. By the already mentioned Makarov pistols and Barishev joined 9mm standard ZHoru Sevrugina, had not previously taken part in the competition. Championship once again got the PM, and the commission came to the conclusion that it "may be recommended for the production of the series and the following military trials." In practice, was given "good" for the subsequent and as it turns out, a long life of the famous "FEEM" — three years later he was officially adopted for …
Designer himself explained the enormous success of their own work on the creation of a pistol: "Suffice it to say that at the time I worked every day, virtually seven days a week, from eight in the morning until 02.03 am, with the result that I finished the shot and samples two, or even three times more than my competitors, which, of course, has given a perfect opportunity to work out the reliability and survivability. "
In 1967, the armament army reconnaissance groups and special units of the KGB was adopted silent pistol (PB), made on the basis of the PM. It was equipped integral silencer, which, unlike most such systems consisted of a 2-parts. This made it possible to store and carry gun removed from the front part of the muffler, but before the application is rapidly install a nozzle, in general, the ability of the gun kept firing and without a muffler. From the basic model PB inherited structure of the trigger with the DA mode, and placed on the left side of the gate guard, the store was also "home", Makarov. The main difference from the layout was that through a small gate length placed inside it revertible spring was unreal. It is situated in the handle and pressed the gate with a longish moving the lever. As mentioned above, the Makarov pistol carried out not only in the Soviet Union, and in almost all the countries of the socialist camp.
Successfully released its analogues in our days are. For example, the Chinese municipal company "Norinco" makes the combat version of the gun under the name Type 59, which is different from Russian PM by anything except the factory markings on the gate, there is a sports version, which, in the main, are exported.
In the German Democratic Republic gun Makarova been made out of a national company named Ernst Thalmann under the brand name «Pistole M». Fall of the Berlin Wall and the reunification of Germany began to plant the real test — the army of the German Democratic Republic was dissolved, respectively, did not become municipal orders and guns at the ready. But soon the Western investment return assist the establishment and, since 1994, the factory, which currently referred to as the «Jagd und Sportwaffen Gmbh», began to produce an upgraded version of the "Makarov".
Czech PM analogue is available at the "Czech Zbrojovka" which, in the town of Brno, is almost 30 years old. In 1982, the Czechoslovak army took over armament new pistol cartridge, which was similar in size chuck 9×18 PM, but had strengthened by 20 percent charge, as a new gun for this cartridge — «armadni pistol vz. 82. " Almost anything from the "big brother" that gun was no different, except that the fuse was not placed on the gate, and on the frame, and the store, "Czech PM" had a more succinct — not by 8, and 12 rounds of ammunition. Go with the release of the Army began the creation of a commercial version — chambered 9h17 Browning and 7.65 x17 Browning — who received the title of CZ-83. It must be emphasized that these guns are very well sold for export. In 1992, in order to reduce costs the creation of pistols vz. CZ-82 and 83 were combined under the general heading of CZ-83. At the moment, a tool is available in 3 calibers for the needs of Czech power structures, and for free sale.
Several commercial versions of an old good "FEEM" release and Ukrainian gunsmiths, processing An old firearm chambered traumatic act. Such "travmatiki" performed on a similar technology — the substitution of t
he barrel to "rezinostrelny 'own production, substitution of revertible spring at a Myagenko, other manipulations to ease construction (drilling, etc.). Back in the 1990s, no one could not imagine that a civilian would be able to completely legal to buy "almost real" PM. Somewhat later, Makarov pistols, recognized more than military property, began to make "travmatiki" experts at the Central artillery weapons base of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. New items are items PMR (or TMR-1) and the "Wii". Regarding the latter, it would be a shame as it may sound, the first "rezinostrela" "Wii" is not amused own customers — guns were assembled very poorly, often from different parts of the "Makarov"!
But the recent series "travmatika" made more neatly, they have a decent appearance and best quality production …
But back to "combat" the biography Makarov pistol. In the 90 years of the last century Russian gunsmiths developed a modernized version of the Makarov pistol — PSM. He had a shop for 12 rounds, huge initial velocity — 430 m / s (PM — 315 m / sec), but lost balance predecessor: the introduction of a massive cartridge cost him the loss of reliability. After a couple of years, the Russians have adopted their own security forces gun design Vladimir Yarygin. The implication is that he absolutely will change soon, "pensioner", "Makarov".
Vinnitsa Scientific-Production Association "Fort" is also created and made a lot of models of pistols, which completely meet modern requirements. But lack of funds acquired by rearm allows law enforcement agencies with new standards. A means grandfather "Makarov" still serve all the people in uniform. It may be true that sixty — not old age, and maturity …
Nikolai Fedorovich Makarov was born May 9, 1914. in the village of Sasovo Tambov province. After graduating from college he worked as a mechanic fabrichnozavodskogo repair locomotives. In 1936, he graduated from Tula Mechanical Institute. During the Russian war majestically worked in a factory where manufactured eminent PCA — sub-machine guns Shpagin.
Makarov independent design work began in 1943, taking part in the competition for the design of a new cartridge for the Russian Army. In 1945 he defected to the Central Design Bureau, where he worked until retirement.
Apart from his own most famous creation — the Makarov pistol — participated in the development of aircraft cannon AM-23 anti-tank missiles "Fagot" and "Competition", which at various times were adopted by the Russian Army. Contributions of a professional gunsmith in the defense of the country was marked by the Gold Star of the Hero of Socialist Labor "Hammer and Sickle", 2 Orders of Lenin, the Order of the Red Banner, Stalin and State awards.
In general, Nikolai Fedorovich several fully owned and peaceful inventions. Yes, he invented the design of sealing the jars with glass cover, pressing a spring clip, and after his retirement at the request of his wife, Nadezhda Mandelstam, invented a machine for rolling and homemade preserves.