Order of Malta — it's not just the premium cross knight structure. Is the title of a modern European union, which calls itself a "sovereign state." It is located in Italy in two mansions, and its leadership claims that it has extraterritorial status. Now it is the association known as the "gospitalersky Sovereign Military Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta" (short — Sovereign Order of Malta, the Order of Malta) — SMOM
Age of the Order passed for nine centuries, his story resonates with intricate way past Russia and is associated with the present Europe. Until recently, its members — the Knights were extremely noble descendants of noble families. All over the world still diligently spread the legend of the prestige of being a member of this celebrated in centuries of spiritual and knightly association. Although over the centuries, much has changed in the polity almost all European countries, the Order of Malta is trying to maintain its structure and old traditions.
However, in the middle of the twentieth century. Order had to abandon the strict rules of admission for which the future knights necessarily give life-long religious vows: non-possession, obedience and chastity (in Latin — the profession), thus becoming monks. But the rule that only the number of the Knights of the Order of professions formed the government (Sovereign Council), preserved, adding to it in 1997, the possibility of including in the government and the knights who gave temporary vows. As you can see, the organization tries to keep up with the times, calls itself a sovereign and "extra-territorial" state. The Order establishes diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level with various countries, although, according to the experts of international law, is not the state, and gosudarstvopodobnym education, not least due to having national sovereignty.
We have orders emblem, flag and anthem, but there is no parliament in the usual sense, it does not have the grounds and there is no population. Nevertheless, over the last 35 years, international technology "hyped" Order of Malta as a lucrative political brand. It is firmly in vogue than took advantage of some dealers, making a lot of money on this.
For centuries, members of the Order held a huge charity work — provided care to patients, which opened up a lot of hospitals in Palestine and in European cities. They were fighting against sea pirates — Berbers and destroyed the naval power of the Ottoman Empire. Before becoming knights, applicants should have a mandatory two years to the galleys, waging war against infidels and pirates, and another two years in the hospital, caring for the sick and wounded, and they perform the most difficult and dirty work that now performs nurses. But even as the Knights turned into a monk, they continued to perform the same duties.
All of this distant past, which is very skillfully and artfully presented gullible citizens. As a well-known French historian Philippe du Puy de Klenshan, true chivalry is gone in XV., The disappearance of almost all the spiritual orders of chivalry. However, even before the beginning of the XIX century. something kept only one Order of Malta. Shameful and ignominious surrender of Malta to Napoleon in 1798, led the Knights to seek protection from its patron, who was the Russian Emperor Paul I. Becoming the then head of the order — the 72nd Grand Master, Paul tried to revive him, not only infuse new ideas, but also to infuse fresh blood into the path of initiation into the Order of the Orthodox Russian nobility. But after the murder of Paul I, the Order fell into decline, and then did was at the mercy of the Pope.
Meanwhile, a wave of popular indignation rose from the truly naive desire to achieve full equality, which has stirred up the whole of Europe in the years 1830-1850. Finally erased the last traits remaining from chivalry. That is what happened to the so-called Order of Malta, has had nothing to do with the old chivalric institution.
My father owned a situation so that even forbidden to elect the head of the Order, and for 70 years he ran his deputies — Lieutenant of the Grand Magistrate. In 1845, Pope Gregory XVI has changed the conditions for admission to the Order of Malta. From now to become a member could only candidate who passed the test period of ten years. This led to a tightening of screening out a large number of applicants and reduce the number of its members.
Only after the election in 1878 to the papacy 68-year-old Earl Raffaelle Luigi Vincenzo Gioacchino Pecci, who took the name of Leo XIII, with the Order have been some changes. They can be called internally. The fact that my father decided to start a fight with the "free-thinking" and atheism that is sweeping the world and Europe in particular. Here, Leo XIII decided that the Order of Malta will be most welcome. The new Grand Master, who was elected to resolve the Pope, Giovanni Battista Ceci, and Santa Croce, trying to find a place in the Order of existing system of European states, as well as justify the need for the restoration of its sovereignty.
On the decision of the first tasks has been spent around 100 years. Part of the solution was found. In all European countries considered very prestigious to be a member of the international private club, which allowed only selected persons. In the XIX century. Order of the said restoration programs of medical and charitable activities.
In 1884, Ceci, and Santa Croce was able to sign a convention with the Italian Ministry of War (not the government), which confirmed the sovereignty of the Order in Italy. However closed orders and other restrictions imposed by the popes, have led to what is already in the 80s. XIX century. began the process of the emergence of new orders of knighthood. Began to emerge medal structure, a kind of "remakes", what were interested representatives of the rising new bourgeoisie engaged in the search for their place in a secular society. These were the different variants of orders Maltese and St.. John St.. George and St.. Agatha and St. Constantine. Lazarus, etc., etc.
Nobody is interested in what is actually now is the Order of Malta, continued to maintain his image as an idea about its antiquity and the legitimate succession of new members. Ranked Among the members of the Order of Malta has become a steadily growing number of "Knights of Honor", in other words, the "knights of honor." Joining the Order of Malta, symbolizing nobility, became a fixture for many latter-day business.
Particularly successful in the North American continent, where a U.S. registered Colonel William Lamb, calling himself Russian in origin, "Sovereign Order of the Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem" has taken under its wing many individuals. Soon, he began to bud new orders, in one way or another had in its name the word "Maltese". All of them were headed nowhere appeared "princes of royal blood" or "hereditary emperors" of Byzantium, the Ukraine-Ruthenia, as well as many fictional realms. Became even indispensable rule that all of these self-styled Orders were originally established by Paul I in 1798, the Grand Priory of Russia (Orthodox), which many even became known as ecumenical.
The Second World War changed not only the map of Europe. There have been dramatic changes in the religious and spiritual spheres. The Vatican has decided to completely turn the Order of Malta, a religious order of the Catholic Church.
Pope again banned the Order to elect their head. On behalf of Cardinal Canali has even developed a doctrine that asserts that the Order does not have its sovereignty. However, 13 years later it was replaced by the current wording is still the "dual nature of the Order of Malta as a sovereign subject of international law, on the one hand, and the religious order of the Catholic Church — on the other."
Finally, during the reign of Pope John XXIII, after the election of Cardinal Canali who lost their former influence, the Order in 1961, managed to achieve acceptance, and then Vatican approval of a new constitution, which made provision for its own sovereignty and were given the opportunity to become a member of the Order of the persons nedvoryanskyh origin. Typically, the new knights became very wealthy people — bankers, businessmen and public figures. However, these techniques violate the traditions and strict rules of the Order of St.. John of Jerusalem, because it was a closed sign for merchants, Muslims and Jews, people of noble descent and born out of wedlock.
Lack of knowledge of historical facts is misleading not only ordinary citizens, but also the whole country. Only this explains the fact that for more than 80 countries have established diplomatic relations with the Order of Malta. It's hard to say what arguments were taken as a basis for deciding on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Order of Russia. But now it is known that in 1992 the head of the Kremlin administration, Filatov met in Moscow with a delegation of high-ranking knights, led by Baron Albrecht von Bezelager. Shortly after the visit of Boris Yeltsin on the table lay memo prepared by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in which, inter alia, stated:
"The Order of Malta in its present form, enjoys a notable influence in the global community … and as a subject of international law, has diplomatic or official relations with a large number of states."
The wording was very vague and did not say anything specific.
Nevertheless, Russian Presidential Decree number 827 of August 7, 1992 diplomatic relations were restored with the Order (taken into account that they existed under Paul I), as on October 21 in Rome was signed the protocol.
However, for more than ten years of their existence the plans for the implementation of large humanitarian project — the construction of hospitals with modern equipment — there are only promises. To date, in the ranks of the Order of no citizen of Russia or the former Soviet Union.
In the late 80's. The twentieth century. in the Russian Orthodox environment for the Order of Malta has strengthened unflattering glory "of the Masonic Order" has more influence in the world. It is called almost the main structure, "a member of a world government." Numerous publications based on unverified facts, and sometimes speculation, further added fuel to the fire. Its members were called Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin, even the leaders of the Soviet KGB. Unfortunately, all of these "writers" invent facts without a twinge of conscience. However, Boris Yeltsin was indeed a member of the Order, which has created … Juna Davitashvili, but it is not only the Order of Malta, and the notion of self-willed ladies psychic. The truth was and is that the Order of Malta really enjoyed quite a big influence in the world community.
Thus, we see that human vanity remained at the same level. A variety of office, manufacturing and selling certificates of chivalry and nobility, are working at full power.
"Maltese" Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem began to be called only from the time of their appearance on the island of Malta. Stay it did not last long — only 268 years of its 750-year existence then. Throughout its long history, the Order has repeatedly been forced to change their location, and the knights, as does the Order, called by geography. At first, the members were called "Knights Hospitallers", or "Knights loannites", since 1291, they have become "knights of Cyprus", with 1306 — "Knights of Rhodes." And when they got in 1530 into the possession of the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of Charles V islands of Malta, Gozo and Comino and the city of Tripoli in northern Africa, have become "knights of Malta." Modern Order of Malta is still referred to as "the Order of St. John of Jerusalem," "Order of the Hospital" or "Order of St. John of Jerusalem."