Mars — a tough nut

"Go to Mars" — so welcoming romantic companions each morning and practice space of the twentieth century, Friedrich Zander Arturovich. Why did the dusty paths of far planets toryat only robots?

World building


It is important to gently fall to the surface, with a minimum slope

Astronauts on the moon did not fly.
However, many (if not all) dream of red rusty deserts of Mars. Problems manned interplanetary travel are divided into technical and financial. Spacecraft mass for flight crew to Mars is comparable to the mass of ISS (now — 417 tons). ISS is created by 15 countries for more than 10 years — long-term construction, and this is the ninth space station!

What to say about such a complex subject as the world's first space ship. Its cost — hundreds of billions of dollars. It is unlikely that the country (albeit a superpower) would allow themselves the pleasure alone. Even for the sake of eternal glory pioneering Mars. So, after waiting for the start of the beginning of construction to Mars will have fifteen. And everything will be international: the ship, crew, equipment, diet and so on.

Crew

We are currently in the world and can not imagine what to expect astronauts to another planet
We are currently in the world and can not imagine what to expect astronauts to another planet

The crew — at least six people: three remain in orbit around Mars, the three fall to the planet. And here, and there should be a doctor-wagon (ideally — each crew mastered several disciplines, so that in the event of an emergency to replace fellow) and a cold cure, and gypsum to impose, and surgery undertaken. You never know what will happen on the planet and okolomarsianskoy orbit! After all, the astronauts would part for a month or longer. Otherwise it makes no sense to fly all the way millions of kilometers.
What will be the crew? Journey to Mars and back will take approximately one and a half to two years. And men without female company for a trouble.
How many ladies will fly? One? Possible argument for a fraction of female attention.
Two? Or equally — three against three? So, send in flight couples?
But where to get such unique specialist spouses?

Crew — international, and how to determine who was the first to leave a trace on the Martian sands of the desert? First and last name of the man will remain forever in the memory of a grateful humanity, as the names of Yuri Gagarin and Neil Armstrong. Have, apparently, walk side by side, so that no one was hurt — two, if not three. This opens the ISS: both swam in the module "Unity" Russian Sergei Krikalev and American Robert Cabana.

Ship

The spacecraft must be enormous, with a full set of spare parts for the conceivable situations in deep space
We are currently in the world and can not imagine what to expect astronauts to another planet

The crew — at least six people: three remain in orbit around Mars, the three fall to the planet. And here, and there should be a doctor-wagon (ideally — each crew mastered several disciplines, so that in the event of an emergency to replace fellow) and a cold cure, and gypsum to impose, and surgery undertaken. You never know what will happen on the planet and okolomarsianskoy orbit! After all, the astronauts would part for a month or longer. Otherwise it makes no sense to fly all the way millions of kilometers.
What will be the crew? Journey to Mars and back will take approximately one and a half to two years. And men without female company for a trouble.
How many ladies will fly? One? Possible argument for a fraction of female attention.
Two? Or equally — three against three? So, send in flight couples?
But where to get such unique specialist spouses?

Crew — international, and how to determine who was the first to leave a trace on the Martian sands of the desert? First and last name of the man will remain forever in the memory of a grateful humanity, as the names of Yuri Gagarin and Neil Armstrong. Have, apparently, walk side by side, so that no one was hurt — two, if not three. This opens the ISS: both swam in the module "Unity" Russian Sergei Krikalev and American Robert Cabana.

Ship

The spacecraft must be enormous, with a full set of spare parts for the conceivable situations in deep space
The spacecraft must be enormous, with a full set of spare parts for the conceivable situations in deep space

He will be great, with a full set of spare parts for the conceivable situations in deep space.
Acceleration produce conventional liquid rocket engines, unless particularly powerful. Propulsion engines are dangerous for the crew (due to radiation) and poorly worked out (only in automatic flight satellites). Solar panels supply energy system of the giant complex.

Are required for each individual cabin as a "world" and the ISS. Of course, the crew members will communicate with each other in the mess and when performing experiments. But a person must own, clearly delineated the living space — even a little — where you might think, to dream, maybe potoskovat on distant Earth. Forces on Mars will need, therefore, two hours a day will give astronauts physical education — "treadmill", and so on the cycle ergometer.
Artificial gravity on the ship — a long way off. One of the sections in turn antiradiation shelter. Sometimes the Sun is a powerful flash, and the streams of charged particles (solar cosmic rays) are spreading rapidly in the interplanetary space (and the ship will fly to the track for a few minutes). In this case, people will save special casing and components shielded compartment. The astronauts will have time to move to a shelter, be caught in a solar flare.

When starting from Earth orbit crew marsoleta threaten Earth's radiation belts, you need to go through them at high speed (ISS astronauts fly below).
Van Allen radiation belts, Vernov (large and small) — two areas in the magnetic field of the Earth at an altitude of 200 to 45,000 miles above the surface.
They held high-energy particles of solar wind — electrons and protons captured Earth's magnetosphere. And then there are galactic cosmic rays.
Lander to Mars, too, should be well protected — Mars tonyusenkoy atmosphere almost all open space destructive "winds."

Flight

Van Allen radiation belts, Vernov
Van Allen radiation belts, Vernov

First person for so long will leave their home planet. Today's astronauts can admire the window to the Earth (only 400 miles!), The crew of "Apollo" on the moon is seen over the coal sky blue turquoise home planet. The first "Martians" will lose this "moral support" that will be a serious test for the psyche. After a few days of flight for months earth will turn into a purple dot on the black velvet of the universe.
Day-to-day aerial vehicle will be eager to catch the receding voice parent planet, and the delay of radio signals to reach ten minutes or more.

Online help, video and work, which the crew will load to capacity. However, in an emergency power system of people surrounded the pitch darkness and silence — those who never dreamed of in the world.
Fans to stop creating convection (mixing) of air.
Will be dead zones clusters of carbon dioxide. And the danger of meteorites? When offline, solo flight, in critical situations, when the bill goes to the moment, the crew will be able to rely only on their own strength, for advice from the Earth will come too late.

On Mars

It is important to gently fall to the surface, with a minimum slope. Yes, the time will choose the off-season dust storms, but the weather — a capricious thing. In the case of squalls unacceptable fall lander. Otherwise, you can stay on Mars for all. Martian desert sand color cause iron oxides act as an abrasive or sandpaper. Wear down the friction machine parts, glass pressurized helmet becomes dull, joints trousers, sleeves, gloves, suits jammed, moving "from scratch." You must create a resistance to these particles.
Compartments must be protected from the Martian atmosphere and dust that can get inside when leaving the astronauts out. In the vestibule would be good to establish a cleaning and disinfection (of life on Mars has not yet been identified, but the Red Planet may exist simplest microorganisms). Hence another, terrible problem: what if the astronauts overtake unknown disease (because there Martian viruses can mutate or earth)? Knowledge depends on the doctor being friends.

If astronauts can not be cured?
When bad scenario it is possible that the Earth will order the astronauts in orbit around Mars — back, leaving half the crew to their deaths. It's not just that they can all be lost if the rush to the rescue.
Main cause for the flight — do not bring to Earth alien pandemic.

All will be well

This is not all of that can arise. We are currently in the world and can not imagine what to expect astronauts to another planet. But, before marsolet humans hit the road, mankind will do for a successful completion of the first interplanetary mission.

Category: Astronomy and Space

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