Martians and the new twin of Earth

Afternoon near the equator of Mars the temperature rises to zero degrees Celsius, and in the summer afternoon, and up to plus-20. But usually there is cold. And in most of the surface — very, very cold. Uncomfortable place to live, whatever you say. But humanity afford to heat Mars and, in fact, make it to atmosfEsli to Robert, humanity would proceed to terraform Mars in 2150-m and finish it in just one millennium. By the standards of planetary evolution — for the moment.

Like many scientists and engineers who have spoken before with studies of terraforming Mars, Zubrin makes the main rate to heating of the planet through the greenhouse effect, that is, the release of greenhouse gases that can move the heat balance of the planet. However, the first step in the plan Zubrin — another. So, in order:

Second sun in the form of orbital mirrors, could significantly increase the heating of the surface of Mars in the afternoon (photo Popular Science).

The construction of the orbital mirrors.

It has a diameter of approximately 125 kilometers, and revolve around Mars, it will be at an altitude of 214 000 kilometers.

Such a mirror would direct more light to Mars, starting raising its temperature and the release of water from the ice that there is (on a small scale such heating can be done already in this century.)

Let the creation of such a large facility in orbit — an extremely difficult task. We can already imagine how to approach it. Just as well imagine the ways of solving the following problem.

Martian landscapes with water and greenery can be powerful even in the year 3150

American engineer Robert Zubrin (Robert Zubrin) — founder of the "Mars Society" (Mars Society), a specialist in astronautics and nuclear technology, one of the most prominent promoters of the colonization of Mars. He argues that terraforming the Red Planet can be made in just 1000 years, which is much faster than previous estimates given scientists (20-100 thousand years).

Zubrin proposed multistage plan to turn Mars into a planet suitable for life, without spacesuits and closed cities. Details published magazine Popular Science.

Bombing Mars asteroids.

Not to deliver water on Mars (some scholars suggest to use for this purpose icy comet), and for the supply of ammonia — a good greenhouse gas. In addition, the impact energy also contribute to the release of water from the ice.

According to calculations Zubrin, for the desired effect (increase in temperature on Mars three degrees) humanity need to reset to Mars 40 asteroids with a diameter of 2.5 kilometers, which will take several decades and several nuclear warheads (to correct the orbit of celestial rock) from our rich stock.

By that time, humanity has fully started to build on Mars first permanent settlements. They pull the industry will develop power, and then that you can come to grips with another item of the program.

"Greenhouse plant" must produce fluorocarbon compounds in large quantities (Figure Popular Science).
"Greenhouse plant" must produce fluorocarbon compounds in large quantities (Figure Popular Science).

Construction of plants for greenhouse gas emissions.

They need to use local raw materials and Martian solar energy (or nuclear) to the atmosphere around the clock to deliver hundreds of tons of tetrafluoromethane. Zubrin wants to repeat the experience of the earth to Mars, only our native plants produce greenhouse gases as a side effect, and Mars — as the main product.

Note the powerful "heater" planets — fluorocarbon compounds has recently said in relation to the problems of terraforming, and other researchers. And although the most recent submissions role of humanity in the Earth global warming is exaggerated, release into the atmosphere of Mars, a huge number of such substances will undoubtedly required "blanket."

Zubrin argues that only 50 years of several such plants temperature on Mars (probably still in the equatorial regions) will rise to 10 degrees Celsius. But first the colonists should see a few more gigawatts of electrical power.

However, in terms of Zubrin these first three works on terraforming begin almost simultaneously.

Although the current Martian atmosphere is thin, it does offer some protection from meteorites and radiation, and high levels of carbon dioxide — good for plants (photo Popular Science).
Although the current Martian atmosphere is thin, it does offer some protection from meteorites and radiation, and high levels of carbon dioxide — good for plants (photo Popular Science).

Help of the Mars.

Heating of the planet will lead to the release of additional gases from the soil, which will increase the temperature by 10 degrees within 20 years.

It has a diameter of approximately 125 kilometers, and revolve around Mars, it will be at an altitude of 214 000 kilometers.

Such a mirror would direct more light to Mars, starting raising its temperature and the release of water from the ice that there is (on a small scale such heating can be done already in this century.)

Let the creation of such a large facility in orbit — an extremely difficult task. We can already imagine how to approach it. Just as well imagine the ways of solving the following problem.
Mars colonists finally able to walk without a spacesuit. But still they still need a mask with oxygen.

At this point, you can begin to breeding orchards and crops (under glass domes, greenhouses, probably already communicating with the atmosphere).

The temperature at the equator in the years has grown to 32 degrees, Mars appeared to open water, and we could start planting plants on the planet.

But first to the saturation of the atmosphere with oxygen would begin some lichens, and more — photosynthetic bacteria. Codling have to wait longer.

Category: Astronomy and Space

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