Mnogokaliberny DShK

Since the beginning in 1925, the work on the machine gun with a caliber of 12-20 mm, it was decided to build on the base of a light machine gun with magazine-fed to downsize created a machine gun. The work began at Design Bureau of Tula arms factory on the basis of a 12.7-mm cartridge "Vickers" and on the basis of the German machine gun "Draize" (P-5). Design Bureau Kovrovskogo factory has been developing on the basis of machine-gun machine gun Degtyarev under a massive ammunition. The new 12.7-mm cartridge, having armor-piercing bullet, made in 1930, and at the end of the year was assembled first experienced mnogokaliberny machine gun Degtyarev pantry store with a disk with a capacity of 30 rounds. In February 1931, after the tests have given preference to DC ("Degtyarev magnum") as a more conventional and easy to manufacture. DK was adopted in 1932, the creation of small series was to plant them. Kirkizha (Kovrov), but in 1933 released a total of 12 machine guns.

DShK heavy machine gun
Experience installation DShK

Troop tests fell short of expectations. In 1935 he finished creating mnogokalibernogo machine gun Degtyarev. By this time made version of the DAC-32 has a receiver Shpagin, but tests have shown the need for 32-33 years in the development of the system. Shpagin in 1937, revised its own version. Was created by a drum feeder belt, which did not seek to introduce substantial configurations in machine gun. Machine gun, which has the power tape, December 17, 1938 stood proving ground tests. February 26 of next year, the decision of the Committee of Defense have adopted under the designation "12.7-mm machine- gun arr. 1938 DShK (Degtyarev-Shpagin mnogokaliberny) "which was mounted on a universal machine Kolesnikov. Also conducted work on the installation of the ANC aviation, but it soon became clear that we needed a special mnogokaliberny aircraft machine gun.

The work of automated machine gun carried by the removal of powder gases. The gas chamber closed located under the barrel, and was equipped with patrubkovym regulator. The entire length of the barrel had fins. Muzzle often equipped with a single-chamber muzzle brake active type. Breeding lugs shutter performed by locking the barrel. Ejector and the reflector going to the gate. A pair of spring dampers butt plate served to mitigate the impact of the moving system and giving it a source of momentum rolling. The back-action spring that fits on the gas piston rod, powered the hammer mechanism. Lock the trigger executed thumb safety, mounted on the back plate (setting a fuse — a frontal position).

DShK heavy machine gun
Mnogokaliberny gun ANC 12.7, the machine in position to fire at targets salaried

Power — tape, submission — on the left side. The Scatter tape having semi-enclosed units fit into a special iron box secured to the bracket on the left side of the machine. Handle bolt drove a drum receiver DSK: when driving backwards, stumbled on the fork handle rocker-feeder and turned it. Located at the other end of the lever pawl drum turned by 60 degrees in the drum, in turn, stretched tape. The drum was once four cartridges. Insert the drum rotates uniformly squeezed out of the belt link and fed to a receiver box receiver. Moved forward bolt catches him.

Folding frame sight, which is used for firing at ground targets, had a notch to 3.5 thousand meters in 100 meters marking machine gun included a mark of the manufacturer, year manufacture, serial number (symbol series — two-letter, the serial number of the machine gun). Stamp was put in front of the back plate on top of the receiver.

DShK heavy machine gun
Mnogokaliberny DShK 12.7, the machine in the position of anti-aircraft fire, the wheel ischit removed. Machine gun from the collection TSMAIVVS in St. Petersburg

During operation with the ANC used three types of anti-aircraft sights. The ring sight remote reference in 1938 was intended to destroy air targets at a rate soaring to 500 km / h and at a distance of 2.4 thousand meters. The sight is the standard 1941 has been simplified, the range was reduced to 1.8 thousand meters, but the likely rate of destroying targets increased (by "imaginary" ring it could be 625 kilometers per hour). The sight is the standard in 1943 belonged to the type of the aspect and was much easier to use, but allowed to conduct fire at different rates goals, including the pitch up or dive.

DShK heavy machine gun
Mnogokaliberny gun DShKM 12.7 standard 1946

Universal machine Kolesnikova standard 1938 equipped with its handle loading, had a detachable shoulder strap, bracket, cartridge boxes, gear vertical lay rod type. Fire on ground targets fired from the wheel speed, for all that his feet were folded. For firing at air targets wheel assembly separated and the machine laid out in the form of a tripod.

12.7-mm armor-piercing round could have a bullet (B-30) standard in 1930, armor-piercing incendiary (B-32) standard in 1932, sighting-incendiary (PZ), tracer (T), sighting (P) against anti-aircraft targets used armor-piercing incendiary tracer bullet (BZT) standard 1941. Armor piercing bullets B-32 was 20 mm is normal with 100 yards and 15 mm — with 500 meters. Bullet BS-41, the core of which were made of tungsten carbide, was capable of punching 20-mm armor plate at a fragile 20 degrees with a range of 750 meters. The diameter of the dispersion during firing at ground targets was 200 mm at a distance of 100 meters.

DShK heavy machine gun

The machine gun began to enter the army in the 40 th year. In total, 1940 year Plant number 2 in Kavrov released 566 ANC. In the first half of '41 — 234 machine gun (only for 1941 in terms of four thousand ANC received about 1.6 million). In total, as of June 22, 1941 in par
ts of the Red Army, there were about 2.2 million mnogokalibernyh guns.

DShK the first days of the Second World War has proven itself as an anti-aircraft vehicle. So, for example, 14 July 1941 on the Western Front in Iartsevo platoon of 3 guns shot down three German bombers in August at Leningrad region Krasnogvardeisky second AA machine gun battalion destroyed 33 enemy aircraft. But the amount of 12.7-mm machine gun installations apparently was not enough, especially given the significant enemy an advantage in the air. As of 10/09/1941 there were 394: in defense of the Oryol region — 9, Kharkiv — 66, Moscow-112, on the South-Western Front — 72, South — 58 Northwestern — 37, West — 27, Karelian — 13.

DShK heavy machine gun
Members of the crew of torpedo boat TK-684 Baltic Fleet posing against the backdrop aft turret 12.7 mm DShK

Since June 1942 the staff of the anti-aircraft artillery regiment of the army came ANC company, which was armed with eight machine guns, and from February 43 the number had increased to 16 units. Anti-aircraft artillery divisions RVGK (zenad) were formed from November 42 th had in its composition on a shelf in the company of such small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery. In the spring of 1943 in the number of ANC zenad decreased to 52 pcs., And refreshed by the spring of the 44th state, zenad ANC had 48 and 88 guns. In 1943, part of the cavalry, mechanized and armored corps regiments have introduced small-caliber anti-aircraft artillery (ANC 16 and 16 guns).

Typically, the ANC used anti-aircraft platoon, often injected into the medium-caliber anti-aircraft batteries, using them for cover from aerial attacks from low altitudes. Anti-aircraft machine-gun companies, having armed with 18 ANC, first introduced in the 1944 State of the infantry divisions. Throughout the war the loss mnogokalibernyh guns were about 10 thousand pieces, in other words 21% of the resource. It was the small percentage of loss of the entire system of small arms, but it is comparable to the losses in the anti-aircraft artillery. It already says about the role of mnogokalibernyh guns.

DShK heavy machine gun[Center]

Flak installation (Three 12.7-mm DShK) in the center of Moscow, on Sverdlov Square (now Theatre). In the background is the hotel "Metropol"[/ Center]

In the 41 th year with the approach to Moscow German troops led duplicate plants in case the plant number 2 has finished production of armaments. Creation of the ANC was put in the town of Kuibyshev where handed 555 devices and machines from the carpet. As a result, during the war was going to create the main Kavrov and in Kuibyshev — "duplicate".

Apart from the easel, used self-propelled units with the ANC — in the main pick-up M-1 or truck GAZ-AA with a machine gun mounted in the back of the ANC in the anti-aircraft position on the machine. "Anti-aircraft" light tank on the chassis of the T-60 and T-70 on a sample test did not advance. The same fate has understood and complexed installation (although it should be noted that the structure of 12.7-mm anti-aircraft guns were used limited — for example, they have served in the air defense of Moscow). Adversity units were connected, first, with the power system, which did not allow to change the direction of flow of the tape. But the Red Army successfully used a 12.7-mm quad South American installation of the M-17 machine gun on the basis M2NV "Browning".

DShK heavy machine gun
Anti-aircraft gunners armored train "Zhelezniakov" (armored train number 5 Coast Defense of Sevastopol) in 12.7-mm DShK mnogokalibernyh (machine guns mounted on pedestals sea). In the background can be seen 76.2 mm naval gun tower installations 34-K

"The anti-tank" role DShK, which earned him the nickname "Ducky", was negligible. The machine gun is limited to use against light armored vehicles. But the ANC was a tank — was the main armament of T-40 (amphibious tank), BA-64D (light armored vehicle), a 44-year 12.7-mm anti-aircraft gun turret was mounted on a heavy tank IS-2, and later in the languorous ACS. DShK machine guns on tripods or pedestals were armed with anti-aircraft armored train (during the war in the defense forces were operating up to 200 armored trains). DSK with a shield and a folded machine might have been dumped guerrillas or landing in the Parachute bag DFC-MM.

The Navy began receiving ANC in 1940 (at the beginning of the Second World War there were 830 pcs.). During the war, the Navy transferred the industry 4018 the ANC, yet in 1146 it was transferred from the Army. In the Navy anti-aircraft DShK installed on all types of vessels, including fishing mobilized and transport ships. They were used on a single tumbovyh twin, towers, turrets. Tumbovuyu, rack and tower (paired) installation under DShK taken into service of the Navy, has developed the IS Leszczynski, the designer of the plant number 2. Tumbovaya setup made it possible to conduct radial firing, the angles of vertical guidance ranged from -34 to +85 degrees. In 1939, AI Ivashutich, another Highland designer, has developed tumbovuyu paired installation, and later showed DShKM-2 gave a radial firing. The angles of vertical guidance ranged from -10 to +85 degrees. In 1945, the armament was adopted twin deck installation 2M-1, having a circular target. Twin tower installation DShKM-2B made in CDB-19c 43-year, and the sight of SB-K allowed to lead a radial firing at angles of vertical guidance from -10 to +82 degrees.

DShK heavy machine gun
Russian tankers 62 th Guards Tank Regiment languid in a street battle in Danzig. Mounted on a tank IS-2 mnogokaliberny DShK used for the destruction of the enemy fighter armed with anti-tank grenade launchers

For boats of different classes did open turret twin set Mstu, MTU-2 and 2-CC with corners pointing from -10 to +85 degrees. Themselves "marine" guns differed from the reference standard. So, for example, in the turret version was not used framework Sight (was used only with vane-ring front sight), the bolt handle was extended to ammunition
box changed hook. Differences guns for a pair of plants were to fore-end design with a handle and trigger lever frame, no sights, fire control.

The German army, which had a staff mnogokalibernogo gun willingly used the trophy ANC, which received the designation MG.286 (r).

At the end of the Second World War and Cattle Falcons had significant modernization of the ANC. Configuration first touched the power system. In 1946, the upgraded machine gun under the brand DShKM was adopted. The reliability of the system has increased — if the ANC TU allowed 0.8% of delays during the shooting, then DShKM this figure was 0.36%. DShKM machine gun was one of the most extensive in the world vserasprostranennyh.

DShK heavy machine gun
There is a crossing of the Dnieper. Calculation of machine-gun fire funneling support the ANC. November 1943 g

Technical properties mnogokalibernogo DShK (reference 1938)
Cartridge — 12,7 x108 ANC;
Mass of the "body" machine gun — 33.4 kg (without tape);
Total weight of the machine gun — 181.3 kg (on a machine without a shield with tape);
Length "body" machine gun — 1626 mm;
Weight of the barrel — 11.2 kg;
Barrel Length — 1070 mm;
Rifling — 8 of right;
The length of the threaded portion of the barrel — 890 mm;
Initial velocity — 850 to 870 m / s;
Muzzle energy bullets — from 18785 to 19679 J;
Rate of fire — 600 rounds per minute;
Combat rate — 125 rounds per minute;
Length of the sighting strip — 1110 mm;
Effective range against ground targets — 3500 m;
Effective range against air targets — 2400 m;
Reach height — 2500 m;
The power supply system — iron belt (50 rounds);
Subcategory — universal wheeled tripod;
The height of the fire lane in the ground state — 503 mm;
The height of the strip-fire anti-aircraft position — 1400 mm;
Laying angles:
— The horizontal position of ground — ± 60 degrees;
— The horizontal position of the zenith — 360 degrees;
— vertical position in the ground — 27 degrees;
— vertically zenith position — from -4 to 85 degrees;
The transition time from traveling to combat anti-aircraft fire — 30 sec;
Calculation — 3-4.

DShK heavy machine gun
Russian soldier shoots at the range of anti-aircraft mnogokalibernogo 12.7 mm DShK mounted on the ACS ICS-152
According to the article Seeds Fedoseyeva "Guns 2nd World War"

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