Nuclear power in India

India at the present time — is a government with a strong economy, a tremendous human reserves, besides more and nuclear power.

India has made the development of nuclear energy and nuclear industry, which includes all parts of the nuclear fuel cycle, the armed forces of the republic equipped nuclear weapon, started the construction of the nuclear submarine fleet. The system of nuclear weapons as a deterrent and combat, priemuschestvenno, against Pakistan and China split in the army of the Republic of between 3-genera Sun This triad of nuclear weapon delivery systems is in the form of ballistic missiles for land, the air and naval forces.

India has conducted the first test of a nuclear charge capacity of 20 kilotonnes 18 May 1974 at Pokharan range in Rajasthan. Officially nuclear power India officially started in 1998, having made a series of 5-minute underground nuclear tests, "Shakti-98." At the current time, India can create two warheads in year.

Atoms for Peace

Trying to limit the development of the global society of nuclear programs from India when Divide refused to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of nuclear weapons, was not crowned with success. India continued to develop as a military applets and peaceful, good-quality reaching results. India is among the world leaders in the development of "fast" nuclear reactors — for rapid neutrons.

At the current time NPP India makes about 3% of the country's electricity by 2035 is planned to see up to 10%, and by 2050 — up to 25%.

India has created a three-stage program for you based on the idea of closing the nuclear fuel cycle:

— Level 1 programs from a closed nuclear fuel cycle include burning at the power from heavy water reactors PHWR natural uranium-238 with the following form of irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium-239. Heavy water reactors, light water is better from the standpoint of production of plutonium from natural uranium.

— Stage 2 — separated plutonium should be used as nuclear fuel for power units with a "fast" reactors. Initially planned to use at Units with the "fast" reactors, uranium oxide fuel, then followed by its replacement with metal fuel — uranplutonievym, and then boot to the same thorium. Thorium is willing to start using (it in India is quite different stores — estimates range from 225 to 360 thousand tons) from 2050.

— The introduction of thorium will allow to start the third stage of applets — time between start of uranium-233. To work out the promising nuclear energy technology Indian nuclear scientists have made the project a heavy water reactor AHWR, designed for the introduction of thorium.

The layout of the future of nuclear energy in the rapid neutron is a demo unit of the Indian PFBR-500 (with an installed capacity of 500 MW e), which is under construction at Kalpakkam. Reactor coolant — watery sodium.

The nuclear sword and shield

The structure of the Indian armed forces for the control of nuclear forces created a special structure — NCA (Nuclear Command Authority), Administration of nuclear command. It is not only the military, and the military-political governing body. Nuclear Command is engaged in nuclear planning in the interests of defense, is responsible for the adoption and implementation of the decision to use nuclear weapons to repel external aggression, it is at the head of the Prime Minister.

Body of operational and technical management of the military subordinate to the specific NCA and the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff of the armed forces of India, is formed in the 2003 Strategic Forces Command (Strategic Forces Command — SFC). It produces the coordination of nuclear component Army and Air Force, presented parts of the East, Fully ground-based ballistic missiles and aviation squadrons of aircraft carrying nuclear bombs. In the foreseeable future, the responsibility of the SFC will also include the now created the naval strategic nuclear forces.

Aircraft component

In the Indian Air Force carriers of nuclear weapons may be French tactical fighters "Mirage 2000N" and the Russian Su-30MKI. Of the other types of aircraft that India has the potential to accommodate a nuclear weapons carriers, this fighter-bombers and MiG-27 "Jaguar".

Missile force

Strategic Forces Command has at its disposal in the ground forces, the two groups of tactical ballistic missiles SS-150 "Prithvi-1" (rocket entered service in 1994 and has a range of 150 km), one group of ballistic missile de facto tactical mission "Agni-1" (for the first time tested in 1989, range Accuracy — 700-800 km) and medium-range "Agni-2" (in service since 2002, 2000-3500 km). India has a total of 80-100 missiles "Agni-1", 20-25 "Agni-2" and more than 60 "Prithvi-1." They are all deployed on self-propelled launchers with the Czech prime movers "Tatra".

It may be that in India, we are working to build the railway launchers for missile "Agni-2".

Successfully tested a ballistic rocket medium-range (5,500 km) "Agni-3", able to hit, such as Beijing and Shanghai. In the development stage and is an intercontinental ballistic missile "Agni-5." After their adopting, Divide will be able to hit at least some facility in China. Brand new tactical missiles SS-250 "Prithvi-2" (250-350 km) Create a ground-based missile parts for the Air Force, but it may be, will be available also in the Army. There is a naval version of the "Prithvi-3 '(range — 350 km) class" surface ship-to-earth. "

Maritime component

The marine component of India's own nuclear forces began to create more with the Soviet Union. In 1988, the lease was transferred to the Indian Navy nuclear submarine K-43 Project 670. In India, it dubbed the "Chakra" in the three years of its lease Indian sailors had a unique experience of its use.

In Russia, continued this tradition for the Indian Navy is built at the Komsomolsk-on-Amur, a multipurpose nuclear submarine K-152 ("Seal") Project 971I. The lease term is 10 years, the Indians also dubbed her "Chakra".

In addition, the Indians themselves and build submarines, and strategic armed with nuclear ballistic missiles. According programmke ATV (Advanced Technology Vessel — «Ship of advanced technology") built three nuclear submarines, the project was created in the late 80s. Parent nuclear submarine "Arihant" (in Sanskrit means "enemy fighter") will be put into operation in either 2012. Her striking power are 12 medium-range ballistic missiles K-15 'Sagarika'. Hyderabad has developed the missile rocket multi-center municipal defense company DRDO — the same one that made the missile "Agni" and "Prithvi". First underwater launch of "Sagarika" with submerged pontoon took the test in 2008. Subsequent Indian Premier League can get to adopt a more long-range ballistic missiles KX, which are land-sea missiles option "Agni-3." India plans to establish two more nuclear submarines with nuclear missiles.

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