January 14, 2012 17:46
A team of Cambridge has created a semiconductor chip that converts electrons into a quantum state that emits light, and is big enough to see all the naked eye. When you point the laser beams on the device, can quantum superfluid, which will translate this research into practice and create on its basis ultrasensitive sensors. The study was published today in Nature Physics.
Quantum mechanical effects can usually be observed only for tiny particles at ultralow temperatures, but the team was able to mix with light, electrons, thus creating, large quantum particles the thickness of a human hair, that behave as superconductors.
Creates microscopic grooves that capture light in the vicinity of the electrons in the chip, they have managed to create new particles called polaritons. Their weight is very small and so they begin to move fast.
Dr. GEB Christmann working with Professor Jeremy Baumbergom and Dr. Natalia Berloff from Cambridge University and a team from Crete. They managed to create a special new models, which allow polaritons to move without getting stuck in one place.
By acting on these two laser beams, they found that the quantum fluid was formed spontaneously make oscillate back and forth, showing one of the most characteristic of the quantum states of the pendulum of the famous scientist, but a thousand times larger than usual.
Christman said: "These polaritons love marching in sync with each other, entering the state of a quantum-mechanical entanglement."
The resulting quantum liquid has some interesting properties, including a tendency to push myself. In addition, it can swirl only in fixed amounts, creating a crater of the right lines.
Throwing laser beams, Dr. Christmann and his colleagues directly controlled by spraying the quantum liquid, creating a pendulum which is beating a million times faster than the human heart.
Christmann added: "We never expected to be able to see it directly, and it is striking how the properties of our sample accurately reflects all the quantum properties.
Increasing the number of laser beams leads to an even more complex quantum states.
The aim of their work is the creation of such quantum states using the electric battery at room temperature, which will enable a new generation of ultrasensitive gyroscopes to measure gravity, magnetic field, and the creation of quantum circuits.
"Just watching the eyes of quantum mechanics — it's amazing," — said Christmann.
On the subject:
Quantum mechanics has successfully passed an examination on the Born rule
Physicists at the University of Waterloo (Canada) and the University of Innsbruck (Austria) demonstrated the truth of quantum mechanics in the experiment on the interference of photons in three slots.
Recall: in the normal experience of the two-slit interference occurs because the photon is inherent in the wave-particle dualism. In 1908, British scientist Geoffrey Ingram Taylor conducted experiments using extremely weak light source and found that the photon interferes "with themselves." This result testified in favor of the then nascent quantum mechanics.
Experiment three slots (Figure IQC).
Now the physicists have another challenge: to somehow combine quantum mechanics and the theory of gravity. It has been suggested that one of the theories have somewhat modified — for example, prevent the violation of the so-called Born rule, formulated in 1926. In quantum mechanics, this rule determines the probability of a certain outcome of a measurement.
Applying the Born rule in the case of the experiment in the three slots, it can be shown that the interference pattern to be fully described by the three expressions, each of which corresponds to the propagation of waves in one of the possible pairs of slits. In other words, the wave propagation in all three slots at once is not considered.
In order to verify the rules, the authors found a source of single photons (laser) to a glass plate with a metallic coating, which at a distance of 100 m from each other were made three groove width of 30 microns. Single photons were fed at a rate of about 40 000 particles / s, and the glass plate is a position-sensitive detector. The measurements were repeated six times (when opening a gap and the pair of slits), and if the rule is not violated, the summation of the results of these measurements should give the same interference pattern as the experiment with the opening of all the cracks.
It is this effect was recorded — with an accuracy of 1%. In the near future, the researchers plan to repeat the experience of the four and five slots, and carry out a similar exercise using beam splitters.