In 1924, Mikhail Bulgakov published the story "Crimson Island", and later converted it into a play. I note that the story, and the play was allowed Russian censorship. The essence of the story: on a scarlet peninsula is a revolution, and then plainclothes war. The British maintained a privileged caste Arapov fighting the Moors commoners. In the end arap kill their own commander and fraternizing with the Moors, and then all together beating "enlightened sailors." British ships skedaddle away from the Crimson island.
"After that the radio antenna on the Eiffel Tower in Paris intercepted greenish lightning, have been transformed in the apparatus in the words of unprecedented brutality on its own telegram:" Glenarvanu and Ardan! Noting prazdnichek our majestic association helmet with him for you, su … (inaudible) that we have on lozhili … (untranslatable pun) … parted … (inaudible) with our respect for you to Arap and Moors. "
FANTASY and pragmatism crisp white officers
Mikhail Nikolaevich himself served as an officer Dobrarmii, and if not personally, then through spouse was well acquainted with Lt. Gen. Slaschova-Crimea. Do I have to state that the writer understood the incredible situation in the army and the snow-white immigration. Not only Bulgakov, and many white officers and intellectuals dreamed of reconciliation Reds and snowy. Take, for example, the movement of "Smena-Vekhists." To realize the reconciliation of emigrants came up the most fantastic plans. Here, for example, now forgotten especially common in Exile movement "Young Russians." The main motto of the movement was — "The King and … Tips", ie the Russian authorities under the auspices of the 1st of the offshoots of the Romanov family. Note that the second person in the movement "Young Russians" after Fuhrer (chapters) Kazembeka was majestic Prince Andrey.
It's at this moment Russian media that perform certain social order, try to imagine all the officers Dobrarmii and later Wrangel "Russian army" super-patriots, die-hard fighters for "one and indivisible" and staunch anti-communist. How annoying would it sounds, it has nothing to do with reality. Take, for example, the elite of the Russian army: horse of the Life Guards regiments — the personal protection of the governor. The officers there were only appointed staunch royalists of the most influential noble families. But the revolution has been established, and the last beefeater Baron Mannerheim served in the Finnish Fuhrer. Although Baron until the spring of 1917, did not know the Finnish language, and the Finns are not called by another as "Finn".
Another beefeater, General Skoropadskiy contacted the Germans and using them became Hetman of all Ukraine. And their colleague at Horse Guards Baron von Wrangell in late 1917 — early 1918, stuffed into the service of the Mongol Kurultay in the Crimea. There is a bargain. Petro wants to be on the other as the commander of the Mongol army. But here the Black Sea sailors dispersed Mongolian nationalists. And now unemployed Baron goes to Kiev to own acquaintance by guards Revels Skoropadsky. Wrangell again wants to be basic. How annoying would it sounds, the Life Guards could not agree on the criteria and key in the hetman's army is Gen. Alexander Dolgorukov, also from the Horse Guards. Well, Baron Wrangel went to Denikin. Was appointed and immediately began to intrigue against the "grandfather", as he called Anton Ivanovich.
And if not exaggerates stick maker article? Not a bit! And all unsure refer to the memoirs of the Wrangel. What Wrangell! There, his companion, baron von Ungern — statuesque Russian patriot who embraced Buddhism and declared himself a Tatar khan and a descendant of Genghis Khan. Even earlier, in the 1960s, the Soviet Union formed another myth, that, say, voluntary army in the main consisted of aristocrats, Lieutenant Golitsyn and Cornet Obolensky. How unfortunate it did not sound like a shame it did not sound! All the higher nobility — the Romanovs, Yusupov, and others — were determined to wage war against Bolshevism from Paris and Berlin, in the latter case from Finland.
The vast majority of white officers of the army were not royal military personnel, and "officers of the wartime", in other words, wimps, engineers, students, Popovich, who in 1914-1917 completed the accelerated courses warrant or warrants. During the war, the army came in white 10's of thousands of high school students. Some of them decided to fight for "one and indivisible" and just wanted to shoot someone.
By May of 1920 with a snow-white armies were all done, there was only army Wrangel in the Crimea. Having built massive fortifications and using the absence of the fleet of the Bolsheviks, the Baron could sit on the peninsula long years. Yet in May, he goes into the offensive. On what he hopes? With 100 thousand soldiers to defeat the five millionth reddish army? Either on the allies?
Already in 1919, the United Kingdom, France and withdraw all their troops from the territory of Russia and fundamentally not lusted after getting involved in a great war against the Bolsheviks. Their population tired of war, and the main task of their own governments believed securing new device Versailles Europe. Wrangel was the only ally pan Pilsudski. Wrangell entered into a hidden alliance with the "head of state". At the same time concealed the alliance was not so much from the Bolsheviks, but on the population of Poland and the Crimea. The fact that Wrangel as ever chatted about "one and indivisible", Pilsudski and his friend from the beginning of 1920 called for the creation of a confederation Intermarum with Kiev, Smolensk and Odessa, in other words, to the borders of the Commonwealth since Duke Vytautas.
Polish Map The Russian Kolodiy
Do I need to read the synchronicity of Pilsudski and Wrangel attacks on Soviet Russia was not an accident. First, the Allies were lucky. The Poles took Kiev and white came to Kahovka. But this joint performance was a big psychological victory for the Bolsheviks. All of our homeland sang "White Army, dark Baron." A Russian military officers, including the anti-Soviet, it's in a rage after learning about the fall of Kiev. Already on May 30 in Moscow was taken by General Brusilov treatment and a number of other generals who were in opposition to the Bolsheviks, "To all the former officers', in which called immediately start reddish army. So pan Pilsudski "sent" in reddish thousands of Russian army officers. And let the media talk today that they were driven into battle at gunpoint revolvers "scabby Jews commissioners" as depicted on the posters of the Voluntary Army.
And oh so concerned to take Kiev majestic Prince Alexander: "When early spring 1920, I saw the title of French newspapers, announcing the triumphant march of Pilsudski on wheat fields of Little Russia, something inside me could not stand, and I forgot about that than one year from the day or the execution of my brothers. I just thought the Poles about to take Kiev! Ancestral enemies of the Russian Federation is about to cut off the empire from its western borders! I do not dare to express openly, but, listening to nonsensical chatter of refugees and looking at their faces, I am with all my soul lusted victory of the Red Army. "
It is clear that Pilsudski used "Russian army" as a bargaining chip in peace talks in Riga. So thousands of Wrangel on Kahovsky springboard paid with their lives for the accession of Western Byelorussia and the Ukraine to Poland. Well, that will be with Wrangel lords in Riga did not even stutter
. Finished with lyahami, reddish rapidly turnuli with snow-white Kahovskogo bridgehead 200000th grouping the move took Perekop, protected only 10 thousand Wrangel. And here begins the detective story, past which for some reason were all emigrants and Russian historians.
The evacuation of the army of General Wrangel in the Crimea. Photo 1920
MILITARY HISTORY DETECTIVE
After breaking Perekopa Frunze thrown in the 1st Cavalry Army Budennogo, 2nd Cavalry Army Mironov, Cavalry Corps Kashirina as 15-20 thousand horse Makhno. First, in November steppe Crimea — perfect place for a cavalry action. It would seem that the most profound breakthroughs, cavalry, broke at the pier, where Wrangelites loaded — all this was inevitably. But how annoying it did not sound all gone cause and noble. General Slashchev later wrote: "I am on Nov. 11 on the orders of Wrangel was at the front, so have a look and bring about his condition. Parts were in full retreat, in other words, more precisely, it was not part of, and separate small groups, so, for example, in the direction of Simferopol Perekopskyi retreated 228 people and 28 guns, and the rest was already near the ports. Reddish not were pressing, and waste in this direction occurred in the criteria peacetime. "
I note that it was written when Yakov was already in the service of the Reds, and the participants battle for the Crimea could just convince him of heresy. In exile, a number of officers were in charge of the horse and the snow-white columns Reds, who were walking in the wilderness in parallel within a few miles of each other and tried to storm.
I personally believe that the French and Russian commanders during the second time in the Crimea (the first time — in April 1919) have concluded a secret agreement: we're leaving, you do not touch us. The text of the agreement so far is not profitable to publish any of, or France. Placed only text of the ultimatum to the French admiral danger to bomb Russian ports if jeopardize the French ships.
At the moment, 10's ostepenennyh historians say the Frunze on the radio suggested Whites remain in the Crimea, and promised them freedom and amnesty. Many of the officers were, but their cowardly fool and repression. In fact Frunze sent a telegram to the proposal to hand over the Crimea with all ships and military equipment in exchange for amnesty and freedom. On the proposal has not been answered. Not enough, Wrangell gave the order to seal all the radio stations, not counting 3. So the proposal Frunze in a white camp nobody vyznat. And even if the agreement took place, the withdrawal of the fleet to Constantinople would automatically stop its action.
Crimean ports has left a whole armada of ships: 1 Dreadnought, 1 an old battleship, 2 cruisers, 10 destroyers, 4 submarines, 12 minesweepers, 119 transports and auxiliary vessels. They were taken to the 145,693 people (not including ships' crews), of which 116 758 people were military and 28,935 — civilians. Note that by this time in the pouring area was already about 40 million Russian immigrants in the main boys of military age. The only reasonable thing Wrangel would be an order: "The campaign is over, bayonets into the ground." How unfortunate it did not sound, Baron went on an adventure and decided to keep his army in the pouring area.
The funny thing is that in this area already sits a few 10 s of thousands of adventurers — the British, the French, the Yankees, the Greeks, the Italians. Why is it so abruptly — "adventurers"? Yes, as they got into power and deception in the pouring area and did not know what to do next. Seriously make war with the Soviets, no one was going. Make Istanbul Paris French colony, in principle, would not mind. But that would not have allowed him to all the other countries of the Entente. In a similar situation was and the UK. Both countries had to make a sanitary barrier between Russia and Germany, and to force Germany to make the conditions of the Versailles peace.
And here is another Greek Prime Minister Venizelos climbed to the plans of revival of Byzantium. So much so, that the Greek sovereign Constantine I of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, in other words a hundred percent Teuton, suddenly declared himself king of the Romans, Constantine XII. Well, from the east to the Straits moved victorious Turkish army General Mustafa Kemal, who was later given the title Ataturk — "Father of the Turks".
From all this, the governments of Britain and France and the allied command in the Straits head was spinning, and there is still Wrangell with his hungry army. Even before the evacuation of the Crimea French Minister of Foreign Affairs Brian said it would consider ordinary refugees Wrangel's army with all its consequences.
The Failed Turkish campaign
From the standpoint of international law after the arrival of Wrangel's fleet to Constantinople France had two legitimate ways out: either interned Russian army, Russian or declare war on Russia. It is clear that Wrangel fundamentally unwilling to obtain refugee status. The staff of the Russian army, placed in camps in the Straits golodoval and experienced feral hatred of the Allies, especially the French, believing them to blame their own misfortunes. Several officers tried to escape the army of Mustafa Kemal. Their catch. General Kutepov personally brutally beat everyone, and then gave the order to shoot.
A lot of fuss about the shooting of Colonel Shcheglova. 45-year-old Goldfinches before the Revolution he served in the train shelf. In Dobrarmii he once distinguished himself in battle, he was wounded. Shcheglova accused of pro-Soviet propaganda. Ailing Colonel removed from the hospital and shot.
Do I have to wonder that there were several 10-s officers, who were komplot to capture Constantinople from the Allies and transfer it to the Bolsheviks. In this way they hoped would win not only forgiveness, and merit. From the perspective of General Staff, mechanically counting the number of bayonets, machine guns and cannons, white officers had no chance of success. But realistically, the past several thousand fire and water soldiers and officers who had nothing to lose, could no effort to suppress the resistance of the French and British fighter who fundamentally do not want anyone to wage war.
Who is with this assumption does not agree, let them remember the riots of French soldier and sailors of 1918-1919 in Odessa and Sevastopol, and in May 1920 in the Anzali surrendered British troops in the event of a ship of the Volga-Caspian Flotilla. By the way, a few months the British and the French surrendered without a fight, and the Straits of Istanbul, Mustafa Kemal's forces.
About komplote officers became clear Cheka. And April 22, 1921 predsovnarkoma Lenin was strictly secret letter signed by Chicherin, in which it was reported that the board of People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs expressed a strong preference to take a very tempting offer of a mysterious friend E. He recommends to establish contact with the forces of Wrangel Island, with so that they are receiving Russian instrument, the means and the promise of complete forgiveness, captured Constantinople, in which there are parts of them. Then, of course, they will give Russian side of the city.
"We — wrote Chicherin — so makarom in possession of the situation in Constantinople." And with all this "we can not be blamed for the actions [Tipo] unfolded except us. After that, we will give him a legitimate holders of Constantinople — the Turks, but not the Angora Kemalists … and existing in [the town of] … work item, which We soorganizuem and armed, as Constantinople is formally handed us the Turkish state. "
But that's not all. "Comrade Ye believes that at the moment our Wrangelites effortlessly take [also] Adrianople an
d Salonika, there [as earlier in Constantinople] will be our commissioners, and just hold the Balkan governments will be overthrown, that can have a major political impact and on the Balkans. "
And on the following day, April 23, the issue of the capture of Constantinople was considered by the Politburo. According to the transcript, was subjected to analysis of the "Comrade offer. Tchitcherin a subsidy to someone E "and the role of Lenin, Stalin, Molotov, Radek, Kamenev and others decided to" approve ". It was decided to send to Constantinople 20 "agitators" and pay each month for every 15 thousand liras. Most of the documents of the Politburo and the GPU on this issue so far not declassified.
I personally believe that the return from Constantinople, the generals of Alexander and James Slaschova Milkovskiy, colonels and Mezernitskogo Gilbaha was tip of the iceberg. Perhaps they who were to take part in the capture of Constantinople.
Rhetorical question: was it worth itself Slaschova return of giant effort GPU and high costs? Propaganda effect, they say, Gen. recognized the Soviet regime? So the Kremlin in the service consisted of 10's royal generals. On the contrary, the return could be the trump card Slaschova anti-Soviet propaganda like immigrants, and inside the country have left opposition. Say, Lenin not only encourages the NEP, and is friends with a bloody butcher Slaschova. In the end, a relative of the victim Slaschova, the same Kolenberg could not shoot the general in 1924, but right on the ramp at the car or ship, where he was met by Dzerzhinsky.
One way or another, but the snow-white officers had a chance to take Constantinople. Talking about how would evolve in this case, the case between the majestic powers, I will not. Leave that to fans of fantasy.