Reddish Baron

In August 1939, the Soviet Union had set a world record after learning of which was affected by the international aviation community: non-stop passenger plane proparhal 5000 km at an average speed of 405 km per hour. So rapidly did not even fly fighter jets!
On the occasion of the new socialist achievements of science and technology in the Kremlin was a festive reception for the crew of designers and machine-record holder. Going to the creators of wonderful aircraft, Stalin asked who among them chief. There was an uncomfortable pause.

— He was arrested — squeezed one of the engineers.
The leader turned to standing behind the Commissar of the Interior
— Do you?
— Yes.
— Live?
— I do not know.
— Find. Let running.

The man in question had on the night of hooks in a pool of blood on the floor in the office of the inspector …

Home maze

In 1900, Donna Paola, wife of Baron Orosa Ludovico di Bartini, vice-governor of the province of Fiume and the 1st of the prominent nobles of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, decided to take on the education of 3-year-old Roberto foster son gardener, black NIGHT MODE planted in a garden gazebo . Wanting to find out something about the origin of the pupil's own future, Baroness hired a detective. He has worked honestly paid the fee, but a report on the results of the investigation came obviously confused: it turned out that the boy's father is … he baron Ludovico! So the boy found a real father and soul of his foster mom fell in love.

It features a young Roberto from early years had a beautiful library, a fencing room, two-masted yacht, home to the Observatory discharged from Germany Zeiss telescope. In 1912, he first took to the air — in the cockpit of the Russian pilot Chariton Slavorossova, speaking in Southern Europe with demonstration flights. And later, on the sixteenth birthday, his father gave the boy his airplane and hired an instructor who taught the young Baron basics of flying skills.

Generally Roberto was unusually gifted: excellent Renders, with both right and left hand, easily mastered 5 European languages, not bad played music on the piano, which is played on the swimming competition. It was not clear who he was, do not start the first global war.

After graduating in 1916, the officer school Baron di Bartini was on the eastern front, in Bukovina, where there was a story that changed the rest of his life. One of his colleagues, Roberto knocked fighter for what he famously greeted him enough. Private not resist and answered. On the same day he was hanged. After that, between the Baron and the officer, whose fault was executed man, there was a very sensual verbal sparring. Both drew their revolvers aristocrat. Bartini's time to shoot first …

From the bullpen, where he waited for the verdict of the military court-martial, Roberto helped Russian. Began known Brusilov Offensive, and Lieutenant Austro-Hungarian army, along with 417 tyschami own tribesmen was in captivity. Later, the never-ending road to the east and camp near Khabarovsk, where Bartini spent a long four years.

Of course, there he caught the Bolshevik ideas. Since his return to his homeland in 1920, refused absolutely to the patronage of his father, and after his death — from a fabulous legacy of 10 million dollars. Settling in Milan, he went to work at the plant "Isotta-Fraschini," where he worked as a laborer, scriber, a driver. Immediately external graduated Aviation Department of the Milan Polytechnic Institute. First, in 1922 the Baron received his aeronautical engineer, and a little earlier — membership card the Italian Communist Party, of which his father and gave millions.
By decision of the Central Committee of the ICP youth involved in the battle group, which was an attempt to thwart the favorites Russian delegation arriving on international Genoa Conference. Terrorist attack militants prepared Boris Savinkova and Prince Felix Yusupov. With the last baron Roberto di Bartini met by using your own aristocratic title and communication in the Italian high society. And soon, a workshop for the production of explosives disguised as perfume shop, under mysterious circumstances, sprung into the air. A detailed information about the plans of white emigrants appeared in several Italian newspapers. 15 people, including Savinkov, were arrested by the police.

After coming to power of Mussolini in Italy Bartinini as one of the most active members of the military organization of the ICP, was sentenced in absentia to 20 years in Nazi bullpen. In summer 1923, the Comintern decided to secretly smuggle it in Russian Alliance.
It was assumed that at some time. It turned out — for the rest of life …

"Oh, great Russian to live in the country …"

MOSCOW Robert L. (as it became known) met a member of the Executive Committee of the Comintern Antonio Gramsci and one of the managers of Russian military intelligence Ian Berzin. And to that, and the other were necessary freshest information about White emigre cells in Europe, where he had been an Italian. But Russian scout Baron did not. Fate has prepared him another way.

In September 1923, Bartini is a certified aircraft engineer, enrolled in the laboratory staff of the Scientific and experienced airfield in the Ice Palace. Later promoted to the professional technical bureau. Assessing the level of training of foreign spices, he was transferred to the Department of the Air Force's Black Sea Fleet.

Here, in Sevastopol, starting aviaminonosnoy mechanical engineer squadron, he rapidly rose to the rank of chief inspector manual of the real part, in other words, all the combat aircraft aviation Black Sea Fleet. And in 1927 — one in 30 year! — Appeared on the lapels Italian diamonds brigade commander of the Red Army (in a modern — Major General).

The aircraft "Land of the Soviets" and its crew

A year Bartinini lured to the preparation of a transcontinental flight. The crew of the aircraft ANT-4 "Land of the Soviets" in the pilots S.? A.? Shestakov and F.? E.? Bolotov B. navigator? B.? Sterligova and D. mechanic? B.? Fufaeva to overcome 21242 kilometers ( 7950 blocked from the water) on the Atta-Seattle-San Francisco to New York. Overall technical management of the flight was handled by B.? M.? Tupolev, part of the Marine ran Bartini.

Meeting the crew of "Land of the Soviets" in Seattle

The flight ended in triumph, and Robert L. got his first Russian services: passenger car M-1 and the letter of the Central Executive Committee.? Soon after that the brigade commander was transferred to Moscow and appointed a member of the Scientific and Technical Committee of the Red Army Air Force.

While working there, Bartinini prepared his first seaplane projects, namely, 40-ton MTB-2 (marine languid bomber), who established the then-record six global flight distance above the sea and carrying capacity. After that, the Italian was in the Experimental Production Office (GRO) in marine aircraft construction, which was headed by eminent aircraft DA? P.? Grigorovich. Robert L. employees were young then, and still not a lot of engineers who are well-known C? P.? Queens, S.? A.? Lavochkin, IA? P.? Ostoslavsky, IA? A.? Berlin, MI? B. ? Chetverikov.

After a while it became a bit crowded in Bartinini borders alone "sea" theme, and he switched to the development of a pilot of a fighter. But here he suddenly had to cooperate with the design work of administrative activities. In 1928 AD? P.? Grigorovich was arrested by the unfortunate "c
ase of the Industrial Party," and led PBO put the "Red Baron." Under his administration for two years has created several successful projects, which were then used in the development of seaplanes MBR-2 (short-range maritime spy), MDR-3 (sea far scout) and MK-1 (sea cruiser), more recognizable as the ANT- 22.

Seaplane MK-1

In March 1930, the design team Bartinini poured into the CDB-39, which was accepted by the Italian with hostility. It is not yet fully realized features the life and work in the USSR because boldly sent a memorandum to the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). In it, he tried to explain to people in authority, but far from the aircraft, the futility of "collectivization" in the design of the winged cars. The result was natural: Bartinini group disbanded, and the most "helluva smart" Baron was fired.

In general, he was unemployed for long. A month later one of the managers of plainclothes fleet A.3.Goltsman tips Deputy Commissar for Defence MM? N.? Tukhachevsky and the Chief of Air Force Ya? Alksnisa Robert L. placed at the head of the design department of NII GVF.? Bartinini later became the principal designer of the small KB formed at the factory experimental design CAF, and immediately the head of Scientific Experiments airfield.

The Fighter "Steel-6"

Although fighting vehicles were not included in the competence of the civilian institution, the Italian allowed to complete the development and to build an experienced fighter pilot reference. The car came to light under the title "Steel-6". And in 1933, when the best model of fighter flying at a speed of 300-320 km / h, has overcome the threshold of 420 km / h Elated, Bartini began on the basis of the record machine design fighter "Steel-8", capable, as per the designer, to develop a speed of 630 km / h And it's in the middle of the 30s of the twentieth century. But at the end of 1934, the project was canceled as not corresponding topic … civilian research institutes.

Dejected Italian affair between developed unique at the time the plane DAR — far arctic spy capable of taking the ice, snow, water and unpaved airfields. At the end of 1935 the car was ready to go in the series. But, despite the order of polar aviation, its creation was not initiated, priemuschestvenno, because of the lack of suitable equipment industry.

DAR plane — far arctic spy

Quite upset, Bartinini switched to designing civilian aircraft. And he made a 12-seater passenger aircraft "Steel-7" with the wing of the "reverse gull." In 1936, this car was exhibited at the International Exhibition in Paris, but for some reason not interested professionals.

In August 1939 it was she was a distance of 5000 km with a record average speed of 405 km / h, leaving a tail of at least some of the fighters as long if he had been there.

The fact that his child was a worldwide sensation, vyznat after a while and Bartini. He did not have to beat him in interrogations, was transferred to the prison hospital, were better fed …

"Mussolini gave me 20 years, Stalin — only 10 …"

"Red Baron" was arrested on 14 February 1938. The charges against him, was at the time the standard and once terrifying in its own absurdity — familiarity with the enemy of the people by the former Marshal Tukhachevsky, spying Fascist Italy and preparing acts of sabotage at the aircraft factory, where Robert L. was the main designer.

The solution of the "special troika" Bartini was sentenced to 10 years in prison following a five-year restriction of rights. In the NKVD had already existed "closed KB" — special bullpen in which detainees designers continued to create a unique aircraft and other equipment. The Italian was in one of those "sharashkas" CDB-29. And here again fate played a cruel joke with him: First Bartinini worked in group A.? N.? Tupolev and participated in the design of the Tu-2 bombers. But later, on his own request, also, was transferred to the "101 Office", which created a promising fighter jet. "Two" Tupolev rose into the air first, 1941, "taken out" on the freedom of all of their own creators. Bartinini same as other employees, "one hundred and first," released only in 1947 …

But it will be much later. In the meantime, interned for Stitching wire brigade commander took proactive role in the alteration of its own passenger record holder "Steel-7" in the bomber far, the project has received the designation DB-240. Right out of the prison cell, he advised to remain free counterparts. When the presence of Robert L. specifically required at the drawing board, his nights in a closed car delivered in KB and transported back to the dawn of "sharagu."

The Fighter "Steel-7"

After several months of such Russian Air Force received with unique combat abilities High distant bomber, who was called … Er-2. Funny stories in the case of aircraft: the car was given the name of its creator is not, as of the 1st of engineers and party organizer Design Bureau of General V.? G.? Yermolayeva, nominally headed the team after his arrest Bartini.

It remains to add that it was only built about 400 Er-2 bomber. In August and September of 1941, they specifically with ilyushinskimi F DB-3 (IL-4) bombed Berlin to the Baltic island of Saaremaa (Saaremaa). And later flew without the help of others over a longer route — a Moscow airport crotchless landings and refueling …

High distant bomber Er-2

With the approach of German troops to Moscow CDB-29, together with all the labor in its conclusions were evacuated to Omsk. Soon there was created an independent Experimental Design Bureau, headed by Bartini. The main theme of his work were the supersonic fighters. Until 1943, the Design Bureau has developed two machines: the "P" — a supersonic single-seat fighter of the "flying wing" with a two-keel vertical tail, and "P-114" — a fighter-interceptor with swept wings and 4 liquid-rocket engines, which had to develop an unheard-of 40's speed in 2 M (twice exceeding the speed of sound). According to one description of these aircraft can be seen as an idea Bartinini ahead of time!

In autumn 1943, Robert L. was ordered to switch to the design of passenger and cargo vehicles. And here he was far ahead of the others: by the middle of 1945 has prepared drafts and working drawings of aircraft T-107 and T-108. Represented the first airliner with a pressurized fuselage and luxurious two-storey trehkilevym plumage, the second — a light freighter, so the desired post-war national economy. Neither the one nor the other model plants have not reached before.

Followed was the brainchild Bartinini main transport aircraft T-117, designed for schematic of high wide-body. He could be the first Russian transport workers, capable of carrying trucks and even tanks. In July 1946, construction began on the giant aircraft plant in Taganrog. But two years later, the assembly of finished vehicles by 80% finished, as Stalin thought that the country has need of more capable of carrying a nuclear bomb strategic bombers Tu-4, in which the equipment and went all the available aircraft engines with the appropriate parameters.

Robert L., as has happened many times, instead of falling into depression, sat down for a new project in
kutsee time having created the drawings in super-G T-200 — a special heavy military transport and amphibious aircraft fuselage vysokoplan large capacity.

The project has been approved, recommended to the construction of the car. But she was not destined to rise into the sky for quite crassly already confluence of events. In 1947, a prisoner Bartinini and all of his "accomplices" were released, and therefore the bureau was disbanded and the ongoing research themes in it and design work completed and closed the fund.

All of insight Bartinini and engineering techniques when working on languid transport aircraft, tested clear mathematical formulas were then applied to KB OS? K.? Antonov. Specifically because of them were born handsome such as the An-124 "Ruslan", and AN-225 "Mriya".

Then, in the late '40s, Robert L., saying: "Well, the fascist Mussolini at the time gave me 20 years. A communist Stalin — only 10. So everything again "? — Left wall" sharagi. " And since he was a restricted one, and as it should, I could not live in the capital and most cities of the European part of the country, went to Novosibirsk.
Absolutely he was rehabilitated only in 1956 …

The idea ahead of its time

In Novosibirsk, where Research Institute. C.? A.? Chaplygina he became the principal engineer of promising schemes aircraft Bartinini year drafted intercontinental bomber amphibian A-55 combat-winged aircraft carrier A-57 and created on the basis of his passenger aircraft at the rate for 2200-2500 km / h.

Project-winged aircraft carrier A-57

Initially, all of these projects were rejected because the claims made by the municipal selection committee considered mystical. Bartinini addressed to C.? P.? Queen with a request for an experimental verification of their own "fantasy." Queens, while labor over missile technology, and therefore has virtually unlimited powers, went against the Italians, who are honored for daring design ideas since the late 1920s.

Engineers Sergei Pavlovich made and "purged" in the wind tunnel several models made on the proposed Bartinini drawings amounted to more than 40 volumes of reporting. Conclusion admiring rocket scientists were specific: the aircraft is able to achieve the stated speed. Another thing is that it is built is not enough either level of equipment, nor Russian power industry.

Only after 10 years of Italian aerodynamic calculations, drawings and profiles calculated their wings for supersonic flight have been used in the construction of the famous Tu-144 …

In April 1956, Robert L. returned to Moscow. And being a destination CACA Ministry of Aviation Industry, located in Lyubertsy, immediately joined in the work on the improvement of the A-57, planned to equip its own is not embodied in the metal plane … a nuclear power plant.

Immediately after spending study on the use of ground effect to improve the landing characteristics of aircraft, Bartinini drafted a large amphibious aircraft vertical takeoff and landing, which has permitted to envelop the transport operations of a large part of the planet, including the endless ice and desert, the most remote corners of the world ocean .

The first step for the realization of this ambitious dream became a little Be-1, the last flight tests in 1961-1963. The second — a unique all over the plane VVA-14 (amphibious flying up vertically), development of which began in November 1965 on Ukhtomsky helicopter plant, and then continued in EDO G.? M.? Beriev Taganrog, where Robert L. was transferred from Moscow in 1968.

Red Baron

VVA-14, top view

Four years later the first of the 2-built amphibious rose into the air. They say that when he saw her in the sky, Bartinini could not hold back the tears: the last time he beheld a flying aircraft designed by them on June 30 years ago!
He had to live least 2-years …

The genius of foresight

This magnificent man died on the night of 4 to 5 December 1974. When a day or two later, found him on the bathroom floor, gushing water from the tap in the kitchen burning gas.

According to the forensic medical examination, NIGHT MODE Bartinini felt ill, got up from the table, knocking over a chair, and went into the kitchen. He lit the gas, began to draw water into the tub. Later, at one point lost consciousness, fell backward, hitting his head against the jamb. But because of what he felt bad? This question was left unanswered.

Of course, he had a presentiment of his death: specifically, on the night the Baron wrote his will, made him a great painstakingly glued packet that requested a solder iron box, and do not open until 2197. What's in it? To find out about this is not the time …

Red Baron

BBA-14 flight

The second is the UFO "Encyclopedia of the unknown," the man's name intruders in control at a certain stage of evolution of the technical development of our civilization. Well, Roberto Oros di Bartini gave a lot of reasons to think about it exactly like that.

Those who knew him during his life, Baron noted the unusual ability to answer the question earlier than the interviewee time to ask it. According to the memoirs of colleagues, Bartini was completely indifferent to food. At one point, he fell into a swoon right in the office. Call the doctor stated extreme exhaustion: working on another project, Robert L. had not eaten or drank more than 2-weeks!

He also worked as no ordinary designer. Bartinini never traceable their aircraft, he beheld them …! After sitting in an unusual numb for several hours, he would grab a piece of paper and began to draw the part of the structure or the individual nodes, writing in the corner of the final specifications. Just then his draftsmen KB took up pencils, engineers — for the calculation. And the end result is constantly the same as the one that heralded a genius.

Red Baron

The remains of the VVA-14

In addition to aircraft Bartini engaged in cosmogony, philosophy, theoretical physics and the development of the theory of technology, leaving in each of these areas of science noticeable trace. Revealing one of the prognostic developments Italian made them even in the middle of the 30s of the twentieth century. In it, he brought all more or important properties of all types of transport in three generalized indicator, having built on the basis of their three-dimensional "morphological box" where everyone is now well-known means of moving part of the volume occupied pathetic. On the "Red Baron" brought the ultimate degree of perfection (ideal) transport. It was found that the best value of all the features speak for aerodynamic vertical take-off and landing. This was the origin does not lost its relevance to the present day forecast of the mc. According to the views of the Yankees, specifically because of him USSR 15-20 years had gone ahead on the construction of the airfoil, having achieved their incredible capacity.

There is at Bartini works and theo
retical physics. Namely, it was created by having a sufficient number of adherents unique theory of six-dimensional world in which time, as the place has three dimensions. And that's not all. As well as Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev discovered parts of a repeating table in chemistry, Roberto Oros di Bartini opened a repeating table (matrix) of the laws of physics, predicting, and then carry on its base a new conservation law — the law of conservation of mobility. Moreover, based on a matrix Bartinini in 2005 a group of researchers discovered new laws of conservation of matter.

Red Baron

Tomb RL Bartini

So who was he in fact — a kid thrown into a black NIGHT MODE gazebos estates Italian aristocrat who has lived an amazing life around and rest on the Vvedenskoye cemetery Russian capital?

Of course, the complete solution of this unique personality is still beyond our grasp …

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