March 23, 1918 at 7:00 am 20 minutes in the center of Paris, on the Place de la République, a loud explosion. Parisians in alarm sent to the views of the sky, but there was not a Zeppelin or airplanes. The assumption that the enemy's artillery bombarded Paris, at first no one came to mind, because the front line is 90 km to the west of the town. But how annoying it did not sound, mysterious explosions lasted. Until August 7, 1918 the Germans fired 367 shells, of which two thirds were in the town center, and the third part — in the suburbs.
In Paris for the first time in the world of ultra-long-shot 210-mm gun, betrothed Germans "enormous." Its range reached 120 km, slightly smaller than the famous Russian ballistic missiles "Scud" (R-17) and higher than that of the first mass-produced rockets "Point". How unfortunate it did not sound, the weight of guns was 142 tonnes, the weight of the entire system — more than 750 tons, and survivability of the trunk was very small.
We will go by a different method
Our homeland. The end of 1918. The country has begun plainclothes war. Russian republic in the ring edges. The population of Petrograd decreased by 5 times, in the town of rampant starvation and typhus. And in December 1918, the Bolshevik Military Legislative Council decided to begin work on a "super-range guns firing." We must honestly say that Sia revolutionary idea was put forward by the chief artillery range of the royal army general VM Trofimov. But the revolutionary policy of strong support for the revolutionary artillery and organized by the Commission for special artillery experiments (Kosartop).
Achieve ultra-long shooting while it was only by 3 methods:
make special gun with very long stems and more than 100 calibers (by the time length of the field artillery guns does not exceed 30 calibres, and naval gunfire — 50 calibres);
make electronic, or, more precisely, power tools, projectile acceleration in what could be created by the energy of the magnetic field;
Make a fundamentally new types of shells.
Go to the German way was not appropriate preparation — a super-long barrel technologically difficult and expensive, and in the presence of conventional ammunition vitality of girdle the trunk does not exceed 100 shots. (Concatenated shell — a shell is provided with a thin copper belts, which, when fired, press in the rifling of the barrel and allow the rotation of the shells.) With 40 years of the twentieth century changed the copper strips of other materials, including ceramics.)
Make an ultra-long electric gun was on the back to our scientists in 1918. But not including the tremendous costs of design, the ready and the refinement of such tools, next to him would be required to establish an electric power station average power. Since 1918 and up to now regularly appear in the press information on the development of electric guns, but how annoying it did not sound, no such setting for service never came. Russian designers have decided to go the third way to make unique and ultra-long-firing missiles.
In 1940, the Germans launched their fire across the Channel from the 210-mm railway systems K-12, with a range of 120 km (by firing a projectile reference 1935). With a smooth barrel and special feathered projectile range increased to 250 km.
Workers' and Peasants supersnaryady
The idea resulted in ecstasy all reddish military authorities, but the main ideologue of the introduction supersnaryadov became Marshal Tukhachevsky.
From 1920 to 1939, the USSR had invested heavily in top-secret tests of a new type of ammunition. New tools for them have been created, altered only the channels already available systems. Yet on the adaptation of such equipment, the design and the ready thousand experienced shells, as their many tests have been spent 10 of millions of rubles. Interestingly, almost all the 20 years were working in parallel on the 3-types of shells: polygonal, and rifled subcaliber.
The multi-faceted talent
Let's start with the polygonal shells that had a cross-sectional shape of a regular polygon. In the middle of its own projectile consistent with the form the channel. In such an arrangement, and a clear finish shell rests largely its surface to the walls of the channel, and he could communicate high speed rotary motion, because it was possible to give a huge steep twisting channel without fear of failure leading parts of the projectile. Because of this it was possible to dramatically increment the weight and length of the projectile, respectively, were much better would range and shooting accuracy.
First, the 1930s were converted into polygonal several 76-mm cannon reference 1902. Channel 10 had their faces, the caliber (diameter of the inscribed circle) — 78 mm. In tests in 1932 was … magic! Polygon shell P-1 weighing 9.2 kg was flying at a distance of 12.85 km and the P-3 missile weighing 11.43 kg — 11.7 km. For comparison, state projectiles weighing 6.5 kg had a range of 8.5 km. And that's without the device configuration tool, has just squandered suitably barrel.
Immediately it was decided to move the entire division, a housing, anti-aircraft guns, artillery and heavy-duty on polygonal shells. Landfills rumbled 152-mm gun D-10 and 76-mm anti-aircraft gun reference 1931 with polygonal shells. Urgent pererablotali a polygonal ship and shore guns caliber 130, 180, 203 and 305 mm.
The screw and nut
Along with polygonal tests were rifled shells. As with polygons, threaded shells had leading copper belts. In their case were made deepest rifling or projections that the projectile came into the rifling (projections) of the barrel, as the screw into the nut. From 1932 to 1938, has been tested several types of s 10-caliber rifled projectiles from 37 to 152 mm.
152-mm gun Br-2 — the first test platform for the star-shaped trays.
Active vs. passive
The big success of our engineers have gained a piercing shells (caliber smaller than the caliber of the barrel). Piercing shells were then called "combined" because they consisted of the pallet and the "active" shell. Pan guided projectile motion along the bore, and the departure of the projectile from the channel destroyed.
To fire piercing shells were converted 356/50-mm two guns, made in 1915-1917 for the battle cruisers of the "Ishmael." Cruisers were put themselves Bolsheviks scrapped.
First, in 1935 the plant "Bolshevik" were made new 220/368-mm piercing shells drawings 3217 and 3218 concatenated with the pallets used to carry out firing in June-August 1935. (Concatenated tray — tray with copper belts, a belt like an ordinary shell.) Construction weight was 262 kg and a 220-mm projectile active — 142 kg, a charge of gunpowder — 255 kg. At the trials was obtained velocity 1254-1265 m / s. When shooting 2 August 1935 received average distance of 88,720 m at an elevation angle of about 500. Lateral deviation was firing at 100-150 m
For the upcoming growth range shooting started work on the reduction of the weight tray.
At the end of 1935 were conducted firing projectiles with concatenated drawing trays 6125. Weight of active shell was 142 kg and the weight of pallet 120 kg, range 97 270 m at an elevation angle of 420. Further work continued towards relief of belt tray up to 112 kg (shell drawing 6314).
By the time the alteration was over the second 356-mm cannon in the 368-mm. In testing 368-mm gun number 2 in 1
936 — early 1937, a shell drawing 6314 were obtained satisfactory results, and based on them in March 1937 made tables firing the projectiles of 368 mm cannon. The design of such a projectile weighing 254 kg, on the girdle of their pallet had to 112.1 kg, the active shell 140 kg. Length 220 mm projectile active — 5 calibres. When firing a total charge of 223 kg initial velocity is 1390 m / s, and the distance — 120.5 km. So Makarov was obtained the same range as that of the "Paris gun", but a more languid shell. The main thing was that it was used an ordinary naval gun, and of survivability barrel was even greater than that of the Germans. 368-mm guns was supposed to have on railway conveyors TM-1-14.
Ultra-long railway guns TM-1-14 was tasked to fire piercing projectiles Baltic town.
With regards Baltic
Have already been delivered and objectives for ultra-long railway guns — "breakdown mobilization" in the Baltic countries, in other words, simply put, the train set TM-1-14 had to shell piercing projectiles Baltic town.
In 1931, work began on the so-called "the star-shaped" pan combined shells. The instruments with stellate trays had a small number of grooves (typically 3-4) great depth. Cross sections of pallets shells repeated section of the channel. These guns can be formally attributed to the guns with rifled projectiles.
To begin with star-shaped trays were tested on a 76-mm anti-aircraft gun, the standard in 1931 and the 152-mm gun Br-2. And then plant "Barricades" started cutting by the CEA system 356/50-mm gun. Caliber gun was 380/250 mm (rifling / through the fields), and rifling — only four. These guns supposed to be installed on railway installations TM-1-14. CEA test the gun at full range failed, but estimated it was to exceed 150 km.
To increase the range engineers experimented with polygonal, stellate, rifled and piercing projectiles.
Gunners from Lubyanka
And Sound of Thunder! Several vigilant comrades at the end of 1938 amounted to a great record "The results of the tests and polygonal rifled ordnance in 1932-1938.", Which clearly showed how manipulated the test results, as the designers of these shells almost stood still. All the tricks were in vain, and the results of tests, in principle, correspond to those obtained in the Volkov field in the years 1856-1870 when testing guns Whitworth, Blakely, etc.
The report was aimed at Artupravlenie the Red Army, where the situation was known and, at best, looked at her "blind eye". A copy of the report went to the NKVD, where nothing of this was understandable.
Denunciations — thing is definitely unpleasant. But in the Archives of Russian army, I closely read the accusation, and the Military Historical Archive — the report of the shooting 12-foot, 32-pounder and a 9-inch guns Whitworth. And how annoying it did not sound all come together. Indeed, at a theoretical level polygonal shells gave great weight savings and the firing range, but the long-range shooting, they began to tumble, for charging them is not required if the engineers, the virtuosos of the polygon commands, shells jammed in the channel, etc. Russian artillery at the direction of his superiors experienced several polygon tools, and whenever categorically ruled out the possibility of taking their service in Russia. Test results polygon tools in the years 1928-1938 one in a line with the fruits acquired by Volkov field. The same pattern has been and is ribbed shells.
Do I have to state that in 1938-1939, 10's development "miracle shells" were repressed, and in 1956, 1960, one hundred percent rehabilitated. Works well over "miracle shells" in the Soviet Union ended, and neither one of them has not been used in the process is stately Russian war.
With the railway 278-mm setting K5E having a range of over 60 km, the Germans managed to keep the terrified population of southern Britain.
What Russian destruction, the Germans well
In the summer of 1940 the German ultra-long guns opened fire on the UK through the English Channel. Shelling of the southern part of the United Kingdom ended in the autumn of 1944, after the capture of the French coast, the allied forces.
Germans were consuming much of the long-barreled guns train as ordinary shells and shells with prepared projections. Thus, the 210-mm setting sverhdalnoboynaya train K12 (E) has a barrel length of 159 calibres. Explosive projectile reference 1935 weighing 107.5 kg had an initial speed of 1625 m / s and a range of 120 km. First, the war for this gun was made a smooth trunk and feathered projectile to him weighing 140 kg, with an initial speed of 1850 m / s and a range of about 250 km.
Another train sverhdalnoboynaya setting 278-mm K5E shot 28-cm shells with prepared projections that had the deepest grooves 12 (depth of 6.75 mm). Of these trunks shot 28-cm length of grenades Gr.35 1276/4, 5 mm / calibres and weighing 255 lbs. The shells have 12 ready to act on the case. When charging the weighing 175 kg opening speed was 1130 m / s, and the range — 62.4 km. Germans managed to keep the terrified population of southern Britain. But, of course, on the aspect of "efficiency / cost" of the German ultra-long range weapon by a great margin of aircraft and submarines.
Already by 1941 the Germans have gained a limit to how mundane (of girdle) and the shells are ready to act. To further increment range and weight of the explosive in the projectile was required radically new solution. And they were aktivnoreaktivnye shells, the development of which began in Germany in 1938. For the same railway gun K5 (E) was created by active-missile Raketen-Granate 4341 weighing 245 kg. The muzzle velocity of the projectile is 1120 m / s. After the departure of the projectile from the barrel cut one jet engine, worked for 2 seconds. The average thrust of projectile — 2100 kg. As the fuel in the engine was 19.5 kg diglycosic gunpowder. Firing range missile Raketen-Granate 4341 was 87 km.
In 1944 he started the development of the German sverhdalnoboynoy rocket artillery system for firing projectiles RAG. RAG rocket weighed 1158 kg. The charge was small — only 29.6 kg, muzzle velocity — 250 m / s, but it was Malcev and the highest pressure in the channel — a total of 600 kg/cm2, which made it possible to make a barrel of light, and the entire system.
At a distance of about 100 meters from the muzzle guns cut one powerful jet engine. Within 5 minutes of his work was burnt about 478 kg of rocket fuel, and the velocity of the projectile was increased to 1200-1510 m / s. The firing range was supposed to be about 100 km.
Interestingly, the work on the system RAG did not end with the surrender of Germany. In June 1945, a group of German designers who worked on the RAG, got a new chief — engineer Colonel AS Butakova. For half a century the dream of a reddish supergun never left the head of Russian generals.
After the end of the second World War, interest in the super-range artillery began to fall evenly. Military engineers carried away with a new trend — rocket science. Rockets began to leak even in the classical patrimony mnogokalibernyh guns — Navy. On the development of Russian naval missile read in a subsequent issue of our magazine.