December 11, 2011 17:14
Rock crystal devoted legends, he attributed all kinds of magical properties. And even today, sometimes it is difficult to figure out where it ends and begins speculation profits. The real facts are so intricately intertwined with the fantasy that they can not be separated. Judge for yourself.
It is difficult to imagine that until the eighteenth century, the worlds greatest scientists were convinced that the rock crystal — it's ice, petrified for many thousands of glaciers in the towering mountain. To all, finally, believe the unbelievable, "kristallos" * — not petrified ice, but something entirely different, conducted special studies.
Rock crystal, as no other gem has unusual magical properties, which are based on its physical properties. According to the Ural scientist, doctor of geological-mineralogical sciences, AS Talantsev had four impressive "unusual." First — this is an extraordinary clarity and sparkle faces. It can be argued that the stone record for clean: Submerged it becomes almost indistinguishable.
The second unusual — a very high thermal conductivity, due to which the rock crystal always cold hands, taking away and dispelling heat to the surrounding air. This property is a stone used in ancient times to relieve the tension from the hands and fatigue.
And rhinestone passes ultraviolet rays. This is the third unusual property of rock crystal. In medieval times, it seemed mysterious and, thanks to this property, in the ancient lapidary said: "Rhinestone heals ulcers and inflamed wounds in humans and animals." To test the above need pebble. Please note, the lens should be just out of rock crystal, and not made of quartz glass, which does not transmit ultraviolet rays. Solar beam directed at the wound, relieve pain.
And finally, the last "unusual" — the ability to generate a rock crystal or pezoelekrichestvo — piezoelectric effect. With the first three features rock crystal is clear, but let's understand the piezoelectric effect.
In 1880, Jean Paul Curie and Pierre Curie, experimenting with rock crystal, connect it to the galvanometer and subjected to compression and tension. Suddenly, the galvanometer needle budge. Scientists bewildered looked at the device, not knowing how to treat the incident. Moreover, if the crystal is compressed, then the faces perpendicular
the direction of compression, there were differently constituted electric charges: positive on one face, the other — negative. Galvanometer needle moves to the right, if the crystal is stretched, the galvanometer needle change direction — miscellaneous recharged. Followed by numerous experiments before they are about the nature of the unusual properties of rock crystal.
Later, the brothers Curie discovered that the piezoelectric effect is reversible: when the faces of the crystal rhinestone creating heteronymic electric charges, then it is either compressed or stretched. That is, there were variations of a certain frequency. Open phenomenon was called piezoelectricity (piezo — in Greek — I press). Of the immense mineral world has such an effect even more rare tourmaline.
Because of this unusual property rhinestone is widely used in radio electronics, sonar, and other technical fields. Cut from single crystals of rock crystal resonators are used to stabilize a radio frequency transceiver, including intended for space communications.