Seven Wonders of the World




"All that's left — right hand"

Do you think that people in ancient times less traveled? Nothing of the sort! Of course, there was no luxury hotels, water parks and modern system of "all inclusive", but there were at least seven sites for which the cost to demolish seven pairs of boots and spend the night under the open sky.

1. Hanging Gardens of Babylon: bloomed on the pavement
Country. Iraq.
The more famous. A unique irrigation system.
From history. The Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II wanted to please his wife, grown in the rich green mussels, and ordered to grow a garden. But where? Some historians believe that the gardens were near the king's palace. Others — that on the banks of the Euphrates. Still others — above the river on the bridge. The only candidate for the opening of the Gardens location — archaeologist Robert Koldewey. He discovered in 1898, is 90 km from Baghdad's unusual structure — the camera with strong walls and pillars — and a lot of the wells with a vertical lift, which could serve to irrigate the gardens.
Another mystery — the name of the wife of Nebuchadnezzar. Historians say that her name was Amitis, not Semiramis, and that she was a Median princess. A Semiramis lived much earlier and was the Assyrian ruler.
As it looked. Strabo writes: "The Hanging Garden arches supported on arches which abut on the cubic poles, put one on the other. Pillars are empty and filled with earth, so that contain in themselves the greatest roots of trees. Vaults and arches made of brick and asphalt. The top roof is like a ladder shoots and adjacent pump through which people, by the designated continuously lift water from the Euphrates to the garden. "
What has become. Each spring, from the Euphrates to flood the snow in Armenia. During one of the leashes arches and supporting columns collapsed garden.
How to get there. Planes, sorry to Baghdad (4:00). From there, an hour away by car or bus to the south, the east bank of the Euphrates. Seasoned travelers say that in peacetime guide pointed to one of the clay hills of brown, stuffed with fragments of bricks, and claimed that this is the remains of the garden.

2. Pyramid of Cheops: once shone
Country. Egypt.
The more famous. Was the tallest building in the world.
From history. Pyramid built not slaves. This work was considered in ancient Egypt, a very prestigious — were taken only on the advice here, provided food and shelter. But immediately after the construction of the hard workers thrown to the mercy of fate. The first sit-in was arranged exactly the builders of the pyramids, when they refused to give out food.
Looked like. Was faced with limestone slabs. Polished to a mirror shine, they sparkle in the sun.
Miraculously, only one was considered a pyramid, while next to it was a richer structure. "Next is the third pyramid, much smaller, although the cost of large expenditures. From its inception until the middle of the pyramid consists of a black stone. Imported from Ethiopia stone makes the building very expensive. Argue that the pyramid is the tomb of lovers pitched prostitute, which the poet Sappho calls Dorihoy "- describes the ancient traveler Strabo.
What has become. The limestone slabs Egyptians removed in order to use them for building houses. They say many of the stones are still to be found in the walls of Cairo houses.
How to get there? Km southeast of Cairo. To get there by taxi or buses coming from Tahrir Square. You can go to the pyramids and the resort town of Hurghada (two hours). From Sharm El Sheikh — 8 hours each way.

3. The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus: the foundation of wool
Country. Turkey.
What is known. For its construction took 120 years already. It set fire to the temple of Ephesus Herostrat resident to become famous.
From history. Built in the ancient Greek city of Ephesus in honor of its patron Artemis. Since these parts were frequent earthquakes, decided to build on a swamp. It is said that for this purpose from other countries were brought a huge amount of wool to the structure stood on it as on a pillow.
In the century before the Briton John Wood four years searching for the remains of the temple. He suggested that in the swampy soil they were suspended. Wood finally came across the thick walls and two ancient manuscript, saying that it is the wall of the temple of Artemis. The British Museum immediately bought a swamp, and, as it turned out, for good reason. For three years the museum has been sent 60 tons of unique finds. In addition to Temple Wood discovered the theater, library buildings, streets and squares.
As he looked. Here's how Pliny the Elder described the sanctuary: "The Temple of Artemis was surrounded by 127 marble columns. In the main hall of the temple was a giant statue of the goddess 15 meters high. The face of the goddess, hands and feet were made of wood. All the rest of the surface entirely covered with gold ornaments and jewels. " Today it was announced that the sanctuary is also served by the bank. It kept saving the state and individuals. In addition, these priests lent money at high interest rates.
What has become. Temple finally destroyed not Herostrat, and then it's a swamp. Under the weight of the building fell through the soil, and over the years the swamp temple swallowed whole. Now tourists are brought to a small hill from which sticks out one column and a few plates. Looking at the wonder of the world, you can look in the nearby ancient public toilet once served as a men's club. Here, men sitting on mugs, arguing, discussing the news. Each had its own nameplate, by the way, is here and sign frequenter of the club — Herostratus.
How to get there. The temple is located at the exit of the city of Ephesus, right on the highway at Kusadasi. In summer, travel agencies organize trips to Kusadasi with a tour and much better preserved temple of Apollo, and the legendary Troy (or what it is) … At other times, can be reached flights of Turkish Airlines flying to Izmir via Istanbul.

4. Statue of Zeus: bathed in oil
Country. Greece.
The more famous. An unprecedented amount of gold and ivory.
From history. According to legend, in the Hellenic Olympia Zeus defeated his father. In honor of this victory, and built the temple. By the way, the domestic "popularizers" of history, who wrote an alternative history of the ancient world, argue that superstatuya actually was … in Veliky Novgorod. And that the sculptor Phidias was actually Fyodor, and the statue — a huge iconostasis! Hmm …
Looked like. "From the bright shining clothes were made of gold, precious forged crown, tapes, bandages on his head of Zeus, gold and clothes were also victorious wreath … Penetration in the door of the temple of dark light illuminated his head so that the logged-seemed to glow emanates from the face of the gods "- writes in his" Geography "of Strabo. Zeus was depicted sitting on a throne. Statue of greased with olive oil to keep it from spoiling and do not crack.
What has become. Burned down in a fire. There is nothing left, even copies of statues that were made for the other temples and palaces.
How to get there. From Athens can be reached by bus or taxi for 1.5 hours.

5. Artemisia of Halicarnassus Mausoleum, This is love!
Country. Turkey.
What is known. Due to the king Mausolus and appeared the word "mausoleum."
From history. The widow of the king decided to perpetuate the memory of her husband grand tomb.
Because the exact location of the mausoleum was known for certain to find it was not difficult. The case was for the small — money. And then the British, and the famous British Museum were faster than everyone and financed the excavation of a miracle of light. Thus, in the XIX century English scientist Charles Newton found among silt marble fragments of statues big stage of the marble chariot, and then do the statues of Mausolus and his wife Artemisia. Findings were sent to the British Museum in London and the Archaeological Museum in Istanbul.
As he looked. The height of the brick tombs, lined with white marble, was 60 meters Meanwhile she consisted of several floors — on the first urn containing the ashes of the king and queen (by the time she stepped into another world), keeping the stone lions. On the second — the sacrifices. All crowned with statues of marble chariot spouses.
What has become. The mausoleum stood until the XV century, until they came to the city of crusaders. On the ruins of Halicarnassus they built a castle — the castle of St. Peter. The mausoleum itself was looted.
How to get there. Plane to Bodrum (about 4 hours), then — by bus or taxi.

6. The Colossus of Rhodes: buckled his knees
Country. Greece.
What is known. The most short-lived of the wonders of the world — stood for only 56 years.
From history. In honor of the victory over the conqueror Rhodians built a statue of the sun god Helios.
Creating the statue was very time consuming. Famous historians Neukhardt Shishova and described in detail the entire process. Initially, the sculptor sculpted out of clay replica of the bronze sculpture. On this basis was applied layer of wax so thick that the sculptor wanted to make bronze. Clay also took just the place that the sculpture was to remain hollow. On top of the wax all over again daubed with clay. The mold is heated, the wax flowed through holes done in the blank, instead of wax filled bronze.
As he looked. Until now, scientists do not know the statues were feet apart or brought together. According to ancient historians, the Colossus was so great that between his legs sailed ships. But it could well be a metaphor. Archeologists say that most likely the statue stood on the shore of the two legs. This version is the fact that the very form of the harbor is that the legs rest against a different coasts Colossus could not.
The sculptor Helios athletic young man, standing on a marble pedestal. God was depicted with the oversight of a hand to his forehead, as if peering into the distance. Philo of Byzantium in the book "The seven wonders" wrote that the Colossus of Rhodes went 500 talents of bronze and 300 talents of iron (about 13 tons of bronze and 7.8 tons of iron).
What has become. Some historians believe that the blame for failure — an oversight architect who made a mistake in the calculations. Others say that the power to save on materials in construction.
During an earthquake, the statue above the knees bent — head and shoulders rested against her in the ground. The remains of the building material sold on the Arabs who invaded the island. Recently, archaeologists discovered an ancient harbor on the bottom right hand of the god of the sun.
"The best of the gifts, the colossus of the Sun … Now he's lying on the ground, overturned the earthquake and have broken knees. Oracle forbade restore it ", — complains Strabo in his Geography.
How to get there. Charter to Rhodes via Athens or plane or by ferry.

7. Pharos Lighthouse: fat man with short legs
Country. Egypt.
What is known. The highest "miracle" after the pyramid of Cheops. The word "Pharos" became the root of the word "lighthouse" in French, Italian, Spanish and Romanian.
History. In the early '90s, archaeologists found at the bottom of the sea near blocks of pink granite. Scientists have little doubt that it is — the remains of the famous lighthouse. The only mystery that torments them to this day: what a statue graced the top of the wonder of the world? According to one source, it was a statue of Ptolemy II, on the other — the god Neptune, in the third version — Ptolemy with two sea monsters.
In 1938, French archaeologists have found the treasure in Afghanistan with vases and vessels, which depicted the famous lighthouse, and on it two monsters and a little pot-bellied man with short legs.
And in 1994, a group of researchers led by French archaeologist Jean-Yves Ampere discovered at the bottom of the statue of Ptolemy II weighed in at 23 tons and a height of 7 meters. According to the participants of underwater excavation work in the local bay enough for fifty years. However, the Egyptian authorities require for that $ 300 million.
As he looked. On the island of Pharos at the entrance to the port of slaves built a tower height of about 180 meters. Three people brought to the top of the lighthouse wood and other combustible materials. The light was visible for fifty miles. Lighthouse served mariners for nearly a thousand years.
Lighthouse decorated bronze statues-machines. They showed the strength and direction of the wind, the time, the position of the sun and moon in the sky. And in the mist warned mariners of submerged rocks with a loud sound.
What has become. Wave destroyed during the earthquake. Bay filled with silt, and the ships could not use it.
This summer, the remains of the lighthouse can be seen in the halls of the Petit Palais of Paris at the "Glory of Alexandria."
How to get there? Lighthouse stood on the eastern tip of the island of Pharos, one kilometer from Alexandria. Turkish fortress Kite Bay, part of which consists of the remnants of the lighthouse, now transformed into an Egyptian military fort. Therefore, to see the remains of the last wonder of the world is impossible.

The author is grateful for the help in preparing the material staff of the Centre for Egyptological Studies Galina Belova and Sergei Ivanov, employees Pushkin Museum. Pushkin Finogenov Svetlana and Vladimir Tolstikova and employee RSUH Boris Stavisky.
Moskovsky Komsomolets
from 09.10.2004
Marina Velikanovs


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