3rd Western Army, commanded by Alexander P. Tormasov to the outbreak of hostilities was placed in Lutsk. Size of the army was 46 thousand people, with 164 guns. This is the size of the army across the state, the actual number was less than a fighter — the number cited by historians range from 35 thousand to 25 thousand combat-ready fighter. In the Army was composed of: body Kamensky (18th Infantry Division), Building Markov (15th and 9th Infantry Divisions), the body Osten-Sacken (3 Infantry Brigade and the 11th Cavalry Division), Cavalry Corps Lambert (5 th and 8th Cavalry Divisions).
14 (26) June Tormasov received from Bagration reported that the enemy has crossed the border. Soon came the news of the departure of the 2nd Western army from the border. In a letter to Barclay de Tolly Tormasov expressed his fear for the right flank of the 3rd Army, and for the Kiev area. Own corps commanders, he warned of the need to strengthen the monitoring of the actions of the enemy, who occupied Brest and Kovel. Team Reserve Corps, concentrated in Mozyr, F, F. Oertel he said about the ability of the movement of French troops to Pinsk and even Mozyr. Tormasov immediately gave the order to the chief of the Kiev garrison General Oppermann on bringing Kiev fortress on alert. 5 (17) July Tormasov was ordered to Emperor Alexander I «to act decisively on the flank and rear of the enemy forces, forward against the 2nd Western army." This order is successfully matched with a permutation of the enemy troops. Napoleon Bonaparte decided to withdraw the Austrian corps to the main line, and ordered to cover the right flank only 7th Saxon body of Jean Louis Rainier (17-26 thousand). French government made a mistake in assessing the forces of the army Tormasov, considering that the body will be able to keep Rainier Russian forces before reaching the Danube Army Admiral Tormasov Chichagova.
Tormasov confronted the 33 th. Austrian corps Karel Schwarzenberg, who moved troops in the Belarusian land on union treaty of Vienna to Paris. After the defeat in the war of 1809, Austria has practically become a vassal of the French Empire and was forced to take part in the Russian campaign of 1812. But between St. Petersburg and Vienna remained unspoken communication, and the Austrian government issued its own team of Schwarzenberg hidden annotations take it easy and not too far removed from the border. The Austrians fled the Bug River and covered by the third Russian army right flank of the central grouping of Napoleon, a garrison on the strip Kobrin-Brest-Pinsk length of 170 km. Initially, the case was limited maneuvers, the Russian and Austrian armies followed a string, without entering into battle.
Since coming, Tormasov expressed concern about the ability of the enemy to yield Mozyr, eventually rear second and third army was put in jeopardy. Specific reasons for this have been Tormasov. In Galicia was centered two enemy corps. 7 (19) July housing Schwarzenberg and Reynier joined in Slonim, from left to Pruzhany to take possession of Brest, Pinsk and Mozyr and make the danger of Kiev. But Rainier forces for such a large-scale tasks was not enough. Because he decided to limit the capture of Brest and Kobrin, which sent five-thousand. detachment of Major General Klengel. A small detachment dispatched to Pinsk.
Tormasov knew about the negotiations with Vienna and St. Petersburg that acts Austrian corps will wear a demonstrative character. But, not trusting the enemy, he left part of the force to monitor the border with Austria (2 and 3 dragoon regiment of Cossacks), and for the protection of Volyn and Podolia provinces (6 battalions of infantry and 12 cavalry squadrons). Part of the forces (6 infantry battalions) were oriented to Mozyr to gain a spare case Ertel. With the rest of the troops marched Tormasov body Rainier, planning to start coming to the Duchy of Warsaw. According to his plan, two divisions — 18th Infantry Division under the command of Major General AG Shcherbatova and the 5th Cavalry, Major General KO Lambert had 13 (25), go to Brest-Litovsk and grab it and then turn to Kobrin. It also Kobrin from Kovel were the main forces of the 3rd Army. The detachment of Major General Ivan Ivanovich sent to Pinsk to show activity and mislead the enemy of intent Tormasov. July 13th Division captured Shcherbatova Brest, soon came up and division of Lambert, who led the avant-garde. Almost immediately, General Melissino Saxons squad blew from Pinsk, 170 km from Brest. General Regnier with the main force was located near Janov, in a state of some confusion, he was not able to find the direction of head impact Tormasov army and its strength.
Fighting near Kobrin 15 (27) July 1812
July 15 avant-garde came to Kobrin. Kobrin was busy 5 th. Saxon brigade under the supervision of Major General Klengel. The Saxons were waiting for the Russian troops from Brest and took a position at 2 km from the town of cavalry forces on the road and arrows along the road. Lambert to the west of early morning enemy forces stormed an irregular cavalry. He has managed to bring down the barrier of the way, but the Saxons established themselves in buildings. After that Lambert has come to expect of the main forces.
The first to come of the 8th Cavalry Division, Major-General EI Chaplitsa. Lambert started coming, sent a detour on the road Pruzhanskaya detachment of cavalry and closed the road to the north. The main force of the Chaplitsa and stormed the Saxons with Kovel and Antopolsky roads and cut off all the way to escape. The Saxons tried to break Pruzhany on the road, but were pushed back in Kobrin.
Meanwhile Kobrin tightened to the main forces of the 3rd Army. Tormasov sent to the city of 2 more infantry regiments, the other part was surrounded by a dense ring of Kobrin. In the tree in the enemy had nowhere to gain a foothold. Russian batteries simply shot every enemy position, the city was on fire. Of the 630 urban buildings after the battle only 79 survived. After fierce fighting the remnants of the Saxon brigade retreated to a dilapidated castle Kobrin and soon surrendered. The enemy lost in killed 2 million people, in addition, taken captive soldier 2382, 76 officers and two generals, seized eight guns. Russian troops have lost 77 men killed and 182 wounded.
Monument victory of Russian troops in Kobrin.
Subsequent military action. Fight at Gorodechno (31 July 1812)
Rainier after learning about the defeat of the detachment Klengel, immediately returned to Antopil and then stepped through Pruzany to Slonim. Tormasov because of the shortcomings of food left in Kobrin. Rainier for the prosecution, he had sent troops Chaplitsa and Lambert, they captured enemy convoys and many prisoners. After a day or three Tormasov made to Antopil and stood there for a week, watching the enemy. During this period of time has teamed up with Rainier Schwarzenberg, whose body turned from Nesvizha back to Slonim and moved on Pruzany where there was the vanguard of the 3rd Western Army. Lambert said Tormasov of the motion of the enemy, and was ordered to withdraw to the main forces that moved at this time to Gorodechno. Lambert was accompanied by the withdrawal of forces almost daily skirmishes with the enemy.
July 29 (August 10) detachment Lambert teamed up with the main forces of the army, which occupied the position at Gorodechno. The position was located on the sloping hills, to the right of its protected swamp, and the left — dense forest. In addition, from the front of the Marsh brook, across which were two narrow dam (at Gorodechno and Poddube). Tormasov by this time had about 18 thousand fighter. The enemy came t
o Gorodechno July 30 (August 11). With more significant forces (about 40 thousand fighter), Schwarzenberg and Regnier decided to make a detour. Saxon housing had to work around a forest left flank of the Russian army and storm the Tormasov from the rear. The Austrians took the puzzle to engage the attention of Russian forces and capture the two dams.
But Rainier was late with the performance, and the movement of the Saxons was seen Russian. Tormasov translated the main forces on the left flank and placed them at an angle to the position held, Kobrin road was covered. July 31 at 10:00 Saxon troops out of the woods west Poddube and were built in the battle line. The other two in the reserve cavalry regiment Rainier sent by road from Shershneva in Kobrin, to reach the rear of the troops Tormasov. The Russian commander pushed to the left flank squad Lambert and instructed him to follow the band encircling the enemy. When the two Saxon cavalry regiment departed from its own body, Lambert stormed and defeated them. Kobrin road has been cleared of the enemy forces.
At this time, Rainier and Schwarzenberg began their attack from the flank and front. Trying to bring down the Funk Saxon Division Russian Poddube have had of success. Russian artillery which reflected the pressure of the enemy. And failed to take possession of the Austrian division Trautenberga dams. Austrians attempt to circumvent the Russian right wing through the swamp was recorded bayonet counterattack. By 10 pm opponent finished the fight. Two enemy regiment was destroyed. The Saxons lost in killed and wounded 950 people, were captured more than 200 opponents. Loss data Austrians do not. The estimated total number of losses Saxons and Austrians — about 5 thousand people. The Russian army lost 1,300.
As a result, Tormasov, despite the enormous forces of the enemy an advantage, to hold the position until the evening and won the fight. But taking into account the balance of forces that allowed the enemy to make a detour and go to the rear of the Russian positions, it was decided to retreat to Kobrin and the defensive approach to the Army of the Danube. Russian Army moved smoothly to Kovel, then to Lutsk and is located across the river Styr. Here the army was reinforced Tormasov Cossack Division Witt. Austro-Saxon forces between braked and Kiselin Torchyn without taking against Russian troops no action.
So Makarov, the army Tormasov, as well as housing Wittgenstein's north, lured to discover significant enemy forces. She held down two buildings by force of 45-50 thousand infantry and cavalry. Napoleon was obliged to abandon the plan to bring the forces of Austria for the coming of the central direction. In addition, he had to abandon the idea of seizing Bobruisk fortress, which were oriented Loture cavalry corps and division-Maubourg Dombrowski. 4th Cavalry Corps, attached to the main forces that Dombrowski laid to protect the main communication in Minsk and monitoring of Russian housing Ertel in Mozyr. On the whole army Tormasov successfully solves the puzzles. However, Tormasov failed, as it was waiting for him basically flat, move the military action to the border of the Duchy of Warsaw and Austria. But the fact that he was able to pin down the two bodies of the enemy, had a serious effect on the ending of the war.
Danube Army. Army Admiral PV Chichagova on April 1, 1812 totaled 52 thousand fighter at 241 cannon and placed in Wallachia. The army consisted of 5 buildings: IV Sabaneyeva, ML Bulatov, PK Essen 3rd, AL Voinov and AF Langeron. Chichagov waiting for the ratification of the Turks was annexed to the world, to proceed with the implementation of the plan the campaign in the Balkans (Illyria). That could be to divide the army into two parts. The first group (about 20 thousand people, with 36 guns) was intended for a campaign in Illyria. The second group was to support the 3rd Western army in operations against the Austrian army.
Avant-garde Balkan groups under the command of Major-General Orurka made of Wallachia in Serbia. Other parts were to start moving in the middle of July. But by order of the emperor, who gave them July 15 in Smolensk, hike in Illyria was canceled. All of the Danube army troops were to unite with the army Tormasov and act on the south-western sector of the front. Danube Army acted to Volyn July 19 (August 1). Avangard Orurka was recalled from Serbia.