Staphylococcus aureus — a common hospital infection

Staphylococcus aureus - a common hospital infection

If you believe the official statistics, the number of deaths from one of the most dangerous hospital infections — MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) in recent years has significantly increased, and the number of infections is growing.

What is golden staphylococcus (MRSA)?

Staphylococci — a common family of bacteria. They are present in most people and are part of the normal flora of the skin, mucosa and lower intestinal tract. The carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is common and the medical staff.

Infection with staphylococci in hospitals and birthing centers are airborne through and through contaminated hands of physicians. You can become infected through open wounds, burns, eye, skin, blood. The transmission of infection with the tools, catheters, bandages, objects of care, and food.

MRSA — a "modification" of Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcus aureus), resistant to one or more antibiotics. To date, the researchers found 17 species of MRSA, characterized by varying degrees of resistance to antibiotics.

For treatment of MRSA requires the use of higher drug doses, increasing the duration of treatment or the use of alternative antimicrobial agents for which this type of MRSA still sensitive.

MRSA infection can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the organ subjected to contamination. Signs of infection are redness, swelling and tenderness of the infected area. Clinical manifestations of disease are varied Staph — from skin diseases and pneumonia to meningitis and sepsis.

Why there is MRSA?

Natural selection is still the basic principle of all living things. A bacteria live in this world much longer than we have, so they are especially good at it. In addition, the genes of bacteria are constantly mutating to resist its main enemy — the antibiotic.

Weaker species of bacteria, when faced with an antibiotic, die, while more stable simply ignore drug. This means that the next time you might have been with staphylococcus, which successfully survived the encounter with the antibiotic, and thus acquired a resistance to it.

This is why doctors always advise patients to drink away the entire course of antibiotics to the end. If the patient does not complete the course of treatment, the majority of bacteria die, but not all. Survivors acquire resistance (ie resistance) to antibiotics. And each subsequent mutation only increases the ability of the bacteria to survive.

The use of a huge number of antibiotics in hospitals and maternity clinics is a huge number of mutations aureus, thereby increasing its resistance to drugs.

Why is it so dangerous?

The fact that the Staphylococcus infected in hospitals frequently than outside of medical institutions, can be explained.

  • First, inhabitants hospitals usually more weaker than the rest of the population, which makes them more vulnerable to infection.
  • Secondly, conditions in hospitals, where a large number of people in small areas, are an excellent medium for the transmission of infections. MRSA infection can be very dangerous for frail patients and newborns, especially if it does not recognize the time and did not cure the correct antibiotics.

What are the prospects?

Strong concern among physicians are reports of increasing the number of infections and deaths because of MRSA. It may be that kind of formed staph that is resistant to all antibiotics. Already exists or VRSA vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, resistant to vancomycin. And in the UK fixed or GISA glycopeptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, glycopeptide resistance, respectively.

Although new antibiotics are being developed all the time, pessimistic experts believe that the development of resistance to them — it's only a matter of time.

One of the main reasons for the emergence of drug-resistant microbes — the abuse of antibiotics. Time and again found a doctor appointment of antibiotics to patients with a viral infection. In this case, antibiotics have no effect on viruses. But the bacteria in the body of the use of antibiotics thrive — mutate and multiply. So now the doctors recommended to reduce the prescription of antibiotics.

An important factor in protecting patients from MRSA is to improve the sanitary conditions of hospitals. Manual inspections in hospitals now do more harm than good, since it is spread through infection. The solution to this problem lies meticulous hand hygiene after each patient. There is also a proposal to introduce a special post hospital staff nurses are responsible for the cleanliness (in Russian health care facilities are usually those duties are assigned to the charge nurse).

Although the question of whether the source of dirty hands breeding aureus, quite controversial. Some recall that in previous centuries, people — most of them — do not know what bacterial infection. He pulled out a carrot of beds in a pool of rinsed and eaten. And no one has ever died from it, a maximum of two days to exasperate an upset stomach. This was because the human immune system stimulated by a natural way. Now, in the "sterile" conditions, maternity homes, where a person falls immediately after birth, it does not. Immunity reduced, thus increasing the susceptibility to various bacteria which were previously not even pathogens.

While doctors are looking for a way to combat MRSA, the number of infections is steadily increasing. And many experts agree that it may take a very great scientific achievement, akin to the discovery of penicillin, so that people were able to effectively counter the resistance of bacteria.

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